Weapons, named after its inventor
The rifle with a complex name
The inventor of the rifle, which changed the XIX century, has a strange name for our ear - Krnka. Cech Krnka Sylvester invented a single-shot rifle in 1849, and in 1850 he experienced a weapon, praised, but did not take weapons. Then it was thought that such an unsuitable weapon for military use.
But since 1860 the situation has changed. Changed tactics - soldiers had to become more self-reliant, to show dexterity and be able to make quick decisions.
Broken chain independent shooters naturally could not be satisfied with the old smooth barrel guns to be recharged after each shot in front. Soldiers, first of all, need a trouble-free guns, which can be charged with breech and in any position. And already in 1869, the year the Russian tsar decided to include the gun Krnki equipment in the Russian army. Perhaps, just for this reason, still some consider Krnku Russian. Despite the fact that immediately after the Russian for the invention Krnki noticed other countries.
From sowing to the gun
American Richard Gatling was the inventor of the most powerful machine gun, whose ancestors are still featured in Hollywood films. The US Army used "grandson" Gatling - sextuple Minigun.
Gatling, who during his life has received many patents, and the very first invention which has been drill, famous for having created one of the first true machine gun designs, which did more than 700 rounds per minute. But he called his invention Gatling kartechnitsy, and was driven by the muscle power of the gun - a fighter to rotate the handle, driving trunks up to speed.
In addition, the gun was equipped with a gravity feed system of the ammunition magazine, which provides automatic charging and each shot when the barrel is rotated block. After his first brief appearance in the American Civil War, the Gatling gun was much more effective in the Spanish-American War, in his own turn, the British used its deadly force in colonial wars against the Zulus in South Africa and Mahdist Sudan.
"The Peacemaker" Colt
Samuel Colt revolver
Samuel Colt was not the inventor of the revolver, but it was the first time he replaced them with single-piece production of skilled gunsmiths on the conveyor. That company Colt put into mass production of weapons such as a revolver single action, better known as "The Peacemaker" or Colt 45. Initially, the "Peacemaker" was designed for the US cavalry, however, is the widespread use of it was in the days of the Wild West. According to one version, in the six-Colt cartridges used caliber .44-40 Winchester, so the Cowboys could use the same ammunition for their rifles and pistols for.
Rifle with a tubular magazine rifle, longitudinally sliding gate and the reloading of the lever located under the neck of the stock, was developed and released in the late 1850s. American inventor Henry on the basis of a pistol "Volcanic" the company "Smith and Wesson". But worldwide fame brought weapons businessman Oliver Winchester, who in 1864 bought the company Henry rifle and began to produce under his own name.
In 1866, the rifle has undergone some changes in store - he was now filled through the side window, not from the barrel, as in the original sample. True, the magazine capacity reduced from 15 rounds to 12, but it has accelerated loading. Over time, a company founded Winchester "Winchester Arms Company," is engaged in production of weapons.
Maxim machine gun
Hiram Maxim and his brainchild
Sir Hiram Maxim was an American inventor who had emigrated to Europe. Among his inventions is possible to note the fire suppression system and the development of the airplane with a steam engine, but the greatest success received another his creation - a fully automatic machine gun "Maxim". It is a weapon that works on the principle of recoil barrel - it did not need to be recharged by hand, like a machine gun Gatling. In contrast, the recoil force in a machine gun "Maxim" threw out the empty cartridge and charge new. Because of its obvious advantages, "Maxim" was much more efficient and reliable than its competitors weapons, so in World War two warring parties to use this type of weapon, which remained in operation until the 1960s.
The inventor of pistols and machine guns
In 1904, the designer John Browning invented a new type of cartridge .45 with improved stopping power. Based on this development, the designer creates a pistol - M1911, which in 1911 had been adopted. During the decades of his service M1911 not only gained a special respect, but also inspired great fear. Only after going through two world wars in Korea and Vietnam, the M1911 was replaced by a 9-millimeter "Beretta" M9. M1911 has earned the respect of its accuracy and reliability, and in spite of twice the shop "Beretta" capacity, as well as a lower probability of accidental discharge, many still prefer the M1911.
Another significant contribution by John Browning in the development of military equipment was the invention of the most impressive guns ever created by man. Constructed in the final stage of the First World War, M2 initially was equipped with a water cooling system, which is subsequently replaced by air, requiring replacement of the barrel to more heavy. "Fifty dollars" - a rather bulky weapon (about 40 kg), but the .50 caliber projectile was fired with energy exceeding the energy of a conventional bullet 4 times. Such a projectile pierces inch steel armor and is lethal when hit from a distance of two kilometers. M2 is still relevant, in addition the model itself has not undergone any radical changes.
John Browning and Browning machine gun
Overall, in 71 years of his life John Browning created 37 models of rifles and 18 - smoothbore.
Emil and Leon Nagant
The famous revolver developed brothers Emil and Leon Nagant from Belgium. The first revolver original design elder brother Emil submitted for testing to the Belgian military authorities, and it was adopted as the officers and non-commissioned officers' weapons called "revolver model 1878". Several modifications revolver different calibers and barrel lengths were produced. Soon Emile Nagant due to illness is almost completely lost his eyesight and major works undertaken to improve the design of Leon Nagant.
Your word, Comrade Mauser
Peter Paul and Wilhelm Mauser
Another development of the brothers, but this time from Germany. Brothers Peter Paul Mauser and Wilhelm owned company that manufactures small arms (mainly rifles).
In 1871, the brothers create a single-shot rifle under a 11-mm cartridge, demonstrated in the Royal Prussian Infantry School in Spandau, and it is taken into service as the Gewehr 1871.
As for the legendary gun, sung by Mayakovsky, before its creation the brothers managed to create a revolver "Zig-Zag", and in 1896 was developed self-loading pistol model Mauser C96, which has become, thanks to the cinema and literature, an integral part of the security officer of the image or the Commissioner of the Civil War Russia.
All in all, it was created 15 rifles models, eight models of handguns, three machine guns and six machine guns.
Berdan rifle number 1 was developed by the American colonel, hero of the American Civil War Hiram Berdanom and improved Russian colonel and lieutenant Gorlov Guniusom. It had a hinged gate to trigger the forward stroke.
Adopted by the Russian army in 1868 as "Infantry Rifle" because she, in view of its excellent, at the end of 1860 - the beginning of the 1870s, ballistics, armed primarily infantry units (organizationally separate from the infantry of the line light infantry, mostly act in skirmishing firearms and avoid close combat).
Mosin gunner was sent to Tula Arms Factory in 1875, where he developed his first magazine rifles. So, he perfected his rifle Berdan, has attached to her store for eight rounds. April 16, 1891 was approved by the example of the rifle, the basis of which has developed a Mosin. Its original name was "Russian trilinear rifle model 1891".
Rifle has served until the end of World War II, although it was modernized several times.