Shadow scheme pererabatki "obsolete" electronic technology in the Third World
In the late 1980s, developed countries have signed the so-called "Basel Convention", which prohibits the export of spent your household and electronic appliances. But, as it turned out, to process on-site, e-waste, long and expensive. So there was a shadow of e-waste market, which, according to El Mundo, in terms of turnover is comparable to drug trafficking.
The main reason why it was initially forbidden to export the used electrical engineering - a high content of lead, mercury and cadmium. Agreement has not ratified US-only (but they took their standards). It was planned that all electronic waste will be processed at the site of a waste-free and "green" technologies. But in terms of the economy not come together - to fight off the investment in the short term is impossible, and therefore - no investors.
At the same time, China began a new round of transition to a market economy. The volume of trade has grown - and containers stuffed with goods on one side, on the way back it was economically reasonable to somewhat fill the ...
This is how the shadow market of recycling of electronic waste in the Third World, where hundreds of thousands of people work every day.
Europe spends 130 million euros per year on imports of rare earth and precious metals contained in the same household and electronic appliances, and 75% of the western electronic scrap simply disappears from the official ways of recycling. So - is cheaper.
The intricate scheme
Obsolete computer from the comely city of Leeds, United Kingdom, you will surely find a landfill in the Republic of Ghana, West Africa. Although in Britain all kind of good to the legislative part of the emitted there is 1, 4 million tons of electronic scrap to 1, 1 million tons can simply dissolve in the air.
From Germany, according to experts, a week is exported 100 containers of e-waste - they are hidden away in just such ships:
And although local police have cool videos as they catch a boat smuggling it - a drop in the sea.
Usually, old appliances and equipment qualify as humanitarian aid to third world countries, or second-hand goods. And, in fact, under this kind are sent to Ghana, India, Brazil ... and the same China.
In the port of Hong Kong e-waste already illegal container comes to hundreds daily. If they wanted to track all of them among the 63 thousand per day is discharged containers is virtually impossible. And bribes all the way, you know.
So 56% of the world's electronic waste is collected in one place - the Chinese Guiyu district center in the industrial area of Guangzhou. Dirty recycling phones and computers gives the owners of the business of 3 billion dollars in profits each year.
Where dies our electronic trash
The average user in the United States to pay for the disposal of 20-25 dollars a computer. This amount is sewn into the purchase, and many manufacturers have and recycling programs. But the program is usually tied to the intermediaries, and they have decided that it is more profitable.
For example, in the US there are only three processing plant electronics, but only in 2008, in the course of checks it was revealed 43 of the company who sold decommissioned monitors "on the left". A tracking all the way unnecessary appliances - so far only in pilot projects.
So the "goods" and is in Guiyu. There will derive from computer scrap still an average of $ 20.
Guiyu - is a hub. Dumps, warehouses and workshops scattered throughout the towns and villages in an area of 55 thousand square kilometers. For comparison: in Moscow area - "only" 2, 5 thousand square kilometers. Moscow and Moscow region - 49, 5 thousand square kilometers. The work here is arranged on the principle of sorting plant. With one "but" - there are no environmental regulations. Basically. After working here, you can lose a kidney - to the time when the blood accumulate cadmium and lead.
"But," for $ 3 a day, thousands of hands do that in "our" world, will cost 3 million dollars for one only process line, to which must be skilled workers.
Because the mechanism of non-manual parsing of e-waste on the faction has not yet been invented.
Everything begins from the landfill
Here, everything inside is separated from the enclosure: metal and plastic ones can be immediately put into circulation.
The rest is being taken in cities and towns. Use all down to personal scooter.
In towns electronic waste once again re-sort.
And will deliver for different workshops.
Here, for example, deal with old monitors. Each can be found at 3-4 kilograms of lead.
Inside the villages in general, all often divided on the basis of the settlements in the old Russian cities.
That's just where we Pottery Street, then - the prestigious "platoobzhigatelnaya".
After the board - the most expensive item.
Details to remove them with scissors, tweezers or pliers. And if something is not disconnected, board placed on the stove and wait for the smoke and go oplavitsya solder.
Then the operation is repeated with the pliers, and the items are sorted by type and value.
This open air "production" and establishing in landfills. Every day around Guiyu lit huge bonfires to 100.
They throw everything - and then taken away valuable hands
Then again sifted - done without pliers.
Similarly fed with wires to extract copper from them.
By the way, the photo with the child has already been done in Ghana, which is the second largest electronic waste dump. There are also many Chinese workers.
Then the collected non-ferrous metals is given in makeshift laboratory where his "clean" acid
From 5 tysyach mobiles can be removed, for example, a kilogram of pure gold and 10 kg of silver. Their value reaches 40-43 thousand dollars.
$ 8 with gadget - is less than you "scrape" from the computer. But still worth it: after a year people will throw 160 million phones.
The plastic is also important - it is often bought for Foxconn, working with Apple, Dell, HP and others.
Therefore, for example, gutted and cleaned plastic board: take laundry basket, put everything back, dip them in a barrel of chemicals.
Often at the end of the work shift is all that remains in the barrels, just poured into a roadside ditch.
cartridges from Canon, Epson, Xerox and other smash with a hammer, and then manually extract the remaining toner. About Toner vacuum cleaners, many workers do not even have heard of. What is interesting, in the same Canon has a processing plant in China. But intermediaries in the chain are often more profitable to send cartridges to the side.
As a result, everything is literally all that is left from burning or unsuitable, is dumped in the river, rural and urban channels.
Then from here take water for domestic purposes:
The river has formed the real trash swamp. But the fish here are caught and eaten.
But the drinking water in tankers Guiyu are imported from other places, are at least 60-100 kilometers from the garbage hub. A portion of the water hawkers brought from a spring at the foot of the nearest mountain. And laundered $ 3 billion a year. According to various estimates, in Guiyu are working from 150 000 to 300 000 people. For reference: the Chinese state monopoly on the production of coal (hazardous industries, the closure of 70% of domestic electricity demand), uses only 210 thousand people. Somebody gets $ 3 a day for a six-day working week, and shifts in 12 hours.
Someone in fifty years, working seven days a week 16 hours - so you can make $ 650 a month and earn the children for higher education.
A woman takes a stone and splits the screen. Beside her child sorts the cathode-ray tubes and cables from the motherboard. Of them need to gut, and then burn everything that has at least some value.
In the truest sense of the word - to burn. Of the tank, where it is all melted, belching acrid multicolored smoke. But they especially have nothing to lose.
Most of these people came in a specially Guiyu. Part of it is recognized that not working in factories near the house, because there is limited tougher child labor /