10 Kremlin of Russia
For hundreds of years they were on guard Russian lands around them grew the town, there were more than 400. The pride of the country and the keepers of its history - the Russian Kremlin. We talk about the most interesting and unusual.
The history of the word "Kremlin" has its roots in the early Middle Ages, and today his origin explain differently.
city fortifications name is associated with the words "cream" (part Zaseki where grows the best timber), "kremlovy" - a strong, durable (forest), "kremlevnik" - coniferous forest on moss bogs. In this context, "the Kremlin" is associated with the concept of "chopped wooden fortress" - these were the first Kremlin.
According to another version, "Kremlin" and "chrome" is related to the word "chrome" - an extreme band boundary, the boundary (the water's edge, the edge of the fabric). In this context, the word "Kremlin" ( "chrome") was used as the boundary or edge of the fortress. And "Chrome" means "warehouse" in the rear of the city, fortified settlement, and in this case the term "chrome" reveal the root word "quiet" and "bins."
Tobolsk: the only Kremlin in Siberia
Beyond the Urals, where there was no need to defend themselves from the Tatar-Mongol raids, the powerful stone castles there. And complex in Tobolsk was built in an existing city rather as an administrative and commercial center. White-stone miracle of the Irtysh was erected in the XVII and XVIII centuries, so that in the architecture of the kremlin joined the tradition of baroque and classicism of ancient architecture and the Italian Renaissance. Trinity on the high promontory first built St. Sophia Cathedral - the oldest in Siberia, later grew around four-meter wall with round and square towers. Now the ensemble Tobolsk Kremlin includes 32 objects: Gostiny Dvor, churches, bell towers and several museums. In the Palace of the governor will tell all about the history of Siberia and even treat you Siberian cakes, made according to old recipes. And in the "House of artists" you can not only get acquainted with the crafts, but also to do something with their hands.
Verkhoturye: the smallest Kremlin
The smallest Kremlin Russia is perched on a rocky river bank Tours, 300 km from Ekaterinburg. Such facilities in the Urals was only two, but the wooden Kremlin Cherdynsky not survived, but Verkhoturye on the site burned down the fortress built of stone. Over the Kremlin wall with towers Naugolnykh only 2 hectares of land 300 years ago frame will fit the bell tower of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Decrees chambers, treasury, building governor. In the maelstrom of history it has resisted only the eastern wall and connected with her five-domed cathedral, decorated with lace stucco and tiles. In the XXI century the only Ural Kremlin waited reconstruction - here reduced walls, towers and other buildings. Now the Kremlin is an overhead pedestrian bridge and you can get in through the arched front gate. From the bell tower of the Trinity Museum see the whole city, and its history is in the details presented in the museum - it is situated in a wooden house built without a single nail.
Yoshkar-Ola: newest Kremlin
For a long time it was thought that the construction of the stone Kremlin was completed in the XVIII century in Russia, but the authorities of the Republic of Mari El to break this stereotype. In 2009, in the center of Yoshkar-Ola, the site of the wooden stockade, built Tsarevokokshaisk Kremlin - the newest and most controversial. The fortress established only in Russia monument to Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich - founding father Tsarevokokshaisk and other cities of the Volga region. Not far from the Kremlin stands another remake - Annunciation tower with chimes, a copy of the Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin and the Cathedral of the Annunciation is built on the model of St. Basil's Cathedral. And that's not all: in the Mari capital has Quay Bruges Flemish houses, the area of the Venetian style and the little Eiffel Tower - in creative architecture blended traditions of all times and nations.
Astrakhan Kremlin is the southernmost
The outpost of the Russian state in the south-eastern borders was an impregnable citadel. The southernmost Russian Kremlin was surrounded on all sides by natural barriers: the Volga and its channels. During the peasant uprising Astrakhan Kremlin almost half a year kept troops of Stepan Razin - the king's troops were able to take a fortress only after a long siege. Due to the difficult terrain in the construction of an unusual form: white stone walls and towers form a triangle. The monumental ensemble of the Kremlin was formed over the centuries, and is now in its territory is dominated by two of the cathedral, built with a difference of 100 years - the Trinity and Assumption. On the military fortress of the past resemble construction Astrakhan garrison artillery yard with the reconstruction of siege weapons, armory and barracks. From the observation deck, "Red Gate", you can see the old Astrakhan and the Volga expanses, and Ethnographic Museum - learn about the life and traditions of the people peacefully coexist on the shores of the Caspian Sea.
Kazan: a symbiosis of two cultures
The Kazan Kremlin - a unique construction at the intersection of two cultures: because of the white stone walls built by Pskov architects, rising turquoise minarets Kul-Sharif. The history of the fortress begins in times of Volga Bulgaria and stone citadel was built here after the capture of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible. Now get on the territory of the Kremlin and the Orthodox Church, Islam, East and West, old and new. The oldest building - the Cathedral of the Annunciation, built in the Pskov style of 450 years ago. The youngest - a luxurious Kul-Sharif Mosque, restored to the city's millennium. Nearby stands the legend of old Kazan - Syuyumbike leaning tower, and the former governor's palace is the main modern building complex of the Kremlin - the residence of the president of Tatarstan. Six of the Kremlin museums show the history of the region from all sides: from fossil animals to religion and culture.
Zaraysk: militia stronghold of
On the background of its powerful neighbors Zaraysk Kremlin looks just a toy: it is almost ten times smaller than the Kolomna, but it is the only fully preserved in Moscow Kremlin. The rectangular fortress with seven towers rising above the small town at the confluence of two rivers. It is built in the same style of the Italian castles, and a small area housed two Cathedral, Sunday school and the museum. Directly beneath the Kremlin wall smashed the church garden, outside it is surrounded by private cabins. But when a tiny fort was a major fortification, and in the Time of Troubles is the events took place that changed the course of Russian history. Zaraysk Kremlin Prince Dmitry Pozharsky gathered the militia to march forth in the Moscow and free it from the Poles. This victory and we celebrate this day - November 4th.
Kolomna: Moscow Kremlin counterpart
The younger brother and a worthy rival of the Moscow Kremlin - Kolomna. He almost did not concede the principal symbol of Russia's strength and scope. Moreover, the Kolomna Kremlin in Moscow repeats the most important detail: multi-storey towers, the shape of the teeth and loopholes, masonry walls. No wonder - it is believed that the two strongholds of one author, the Italian architect Aloisio Fryazin and urban strengthening Kolomna he built on the model of the capital. The fortress protected the southern approaches to Moscow, its walls remember not one battle, and Cathedral of the Assumption was built here by the decree of Dmitry Donskoy after the victory at Kulikovo field - this temple is valid and in our days. Kolomna Kremlin - a real time machine: you can wear medieval armor, shoot from old weapons and seek the treasure Marina Mniszek. According to legend, the wife of two False Dmitry was imprisoned in one of the towers, and before it has had time to hide somewhere in the king's treasures, so that they still have not found.
Velikiy Novgorod, one of the most ancient Kremlin
According to recent reports, a wooden castle was built as early as the middle of the X century, over 1,000 years ago. A stone walls and towers of the citadel, which we see now were rebuilt in the XV century. The heart of the Kremlin and the symbol of Novgorod the Great - St. Sophia Cathedral, the oldest church of Russia. He began to build in 1045, and there is literally everything breathes history: the massive stone walls, mysterious Magdeburg Gates, ancient icons and frescoes. In the XIX century, the glorious past immortalized in bronze - in front of the Sofia cathedral erected a monument "Millennium of Russia". This compositions with statues of kings and heroes - from Prince Rurik to Alexander II. On the territory of the Kremlin operates several churches and museums, and from the fortified walls overlooking the epic Volkhov and trade side.
Pskov Kremlin is the most powerful
Another contender for the title of the ancient Kremlin - Pskov Krom. It is believed that the earthworks were surrounded Pskov at the beginning of the X century, and stone buildings appeared in the XIII. Kremlin stood at the center of the largest fortress in Europe, which consisted of five zones of fortifications, each - with its walls and towers. Until today only the ruins of the city and Dovmont Krom. In the center of the Kremlin tower Trinity Cathedral and its bell tower with the oldest in the Russian-sounding set of bells. Veche on the square in front of the cathedral to take all the important decisions and laws of the Pskov Republic. The Kremlin was not only a spiritual and administrative center, but also the most powerful Russian fortress: he withstood 26 sieges, protecting the city from the Polish army, the knights of the Livonian Order, the Swedes and Lithuanians.
Svijazhsk Roll Kremlin
From the wooden Sviyazhsky Kremlin did not survive no walls, no towers, but left a trace in history. On top of the mountain in Sviyagi mouth of Ivan the Terrible founded a fortified town from which his campaign against Kazan and took it. Build strong walls right under the noses of the enemy was impossible, so the Kremlin gathered in Uglich forests. Then disassembled, numbered each log, rafting down the Volga and reassembled fortress already at this place - just four weeks. The only surviving wooden structure of Sviyazhsk - Trinity Church middle of the XVI century, with a spread of Orthodoxy in the Volga region began. Spirit of the past alive, and now makes a noise "Lazy Torzhok" sledgehammer pounding in wood-burning ovens baked bread in a samovar boiling tea. And in the far from the entrance of the bridge end of the island you can swim in the Volga.