How does the Thames barrier
Thames Barrier - a grand structure that protects London from flooding. In XX century, flooding human casualties fell upon the British capital twice, in 1928 and 1953 respectively. The British decided it is no longer possible to tolerate violence of the elements.
London for centuries was vulnerable to flooding that occurred due to the storm surge from the North Sea. In such cases, the sea tide is moving, which increases the pressure in the English Channel, and then - in the mouth of the Thames. Spring surge may coincide with the seasonal floods, and this certainly means the flooding of London. Let's see what come up with to counter this
After the flood of 1953, which killed 307 people, the company has agreed with the necessity of a protective barrier. At risk were 340 square kilometers of land with half a million buildings, almost a hundred railway stations. Here resided 1, 25 million people. Possible damage caused by catastrophic floods was estimated at a monstrous amount of 30 billion pounds.
In 1972, it was decided to build the barrier. His concept proposed engineer Charles Reginald Draper. More in 1950 eighteen young men he built a working model, which uses the principle of ordinary brass gas valve. Testing has proven the reliability and efficiency of the design.
May 8, 1984, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the Thames Barrier. It covers the width of the river 520 meters: futuristic glittering structures, each as tall as a five-story house, divided into four flow length of 61 meters and two navigable span of 30 meters. These openings are installed steel rotary segments at the usual time lying on the bottom of the river. If necessary segments weighing 3700 tons synchronously rotated by 90 degrees, for reliably blocking.
Time has shown that the barrier is vital to London: the frequency of floods is increasing all the time. In the first five years of construction was used only four times. But only in 2001, it had to raise 15 times, in 2003 - 19 times, in 2007 - 11. It is estimated that by 2050, a protective structure will consist of up to 75 times per year.
crowds of tourists come to look at the barriers. In the small Center of Education and information show a working model of the structure. When a bit of luck you can see the work and the barrier itself - check it once a month.
On the north bank of the Thames to the construction of the adjacent Park Thames Barrier - a great example of the renovation of the ruined area. Previously here at the Royal Docks, it was located "dirty" production of sleepers and telegraph poles. In 1994, we adopted a plan to transform the territory of one of the best green places in London have announced an international competition. And already in 2000 there was opened a magnificent park with fountains, gardens, groves and flower meadows.
The barrier is made up of nine steel gates, covering the river to 520 meters wide. When open, the gates lie flat on the seabed, allowing the river to flow freely and passing ships of all sizes. When closed, the gate moved upward until completely block the river. Gates are hollow inside and are made of steel is 1.6 inches thick. Each leaflet reaches 61 meters in length and weighs 3, 200 tons. Gates fill with water when submerged and devastated, rising from the river.
The flooding has been a problem in London for centuries. The threat has increased over time due to the slow but continuous improvement of flood levels and slow "sinking" the UK - up to 5 cm in 100 years, caused by the postglacial recovery. In 1928 Thames flood killed 14 people and 307 people died after a flood in 1953.
Construction of the Thames barrier began in 1974, but was officially opened a decade later. The barrier was originally designed with operation up to 2030, but a recent analysis shows that it would be sufficient protection to the 2060-70 period.
So in January 2014 in London, powered by 'Thames Barrier. " UK Met Office on Saturday January 4 warned the strengthening storm winds and the threat of abnormally high tides.
Sea storms raged while off the coast of British counties of Cornwall and Devon, as well as in Wales, south-west UK. On the waterfront Welsh resort town Eberistvit hit three-meter waves, the erosion of the plate, with which it was paved. About 100 people living in the houses on the seafront were evacuated; dozens of shops and hotels are located by the sea, flooded.
on Thames Barrier - the second largest adjustable barrier (the first largest is located in the Netherlands). Since the construction of the barrier overlap 119 times.
In the last two months of the barriers Thames suffered a record load. How do they work?
In December, the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued a schematic representation of how London would look like if sea levels continue to rise, and at the same time there would be no barriers. the water would have been the Houses of Parliament, the O2 Arena stadium, Tower Bridge and Southwark areas, Isle of Dogs, Whitechapel and West Ham. The barrier of the Thames was built in 1982 in the western part of the capital, in the Woolwich area. Its function - to protect central London area of 48 square meters. miles (125 sq. km.) of flooding caused by the tidal wave.
ak looked to London during the flood without the barrier.
Now, due to heavy torrential rains, there is a danger that out of the sea a lot of water will go into the river, and the western part of the capital affected by the floods. As stated by one of the rangers barrier Edmond Ford, to prevent this, the barrier is used at full capacity. On December 6th it was closed already 28 times. This is the fifth part of all the closures of the barrier - it just closed 150 different from the date of commissioning. There were years when the barrier is generally not used. Closing the barrier in December 2012 was the first since March 2010. Barrier with 10 steel locks reaches 520 meters (1700 feet) in height. The open gate locks are on the bottom of the river, at the close they rise, is not completely block the river. The length of the four main gates 61, 5 meters (200 feet), the weight of each of them is 3000 tons. The barrier is closed immediately after the tide, creating a "reservoir", which will be filled with water from the river. to close the barrier requires 75-90 minutes from the start of closing the door external gateway to the fully closed intermediate target.
"open" position - The Thames flows freely through the locks, ships pass through the locks.
The position of "closed" - steel wall spans the river in the upper reaches, not allowing water to flow to the capital
Intermediate position - provides a passageway for a controlled amount of water in the gateway Thames
If the barrier is not there, the sea water flow would be rushed to the mouth of the Thames, in London, preventing the normal flow of the river. In conjunction with the heavy rains, it would lead to flooding. The barrier also protects the city from flooding. Closed gates to hold back the river tide. Supervisors of waiting until the water level on both sides of the barrier level off (become the same), then the gateway gate is opened, water flows. Water can not overflow over the barrier, as there is a reserve space. Barrier locked in three cases: in the presence of high storm wave from the North Sea, high tides and excessive runoff. At this point the barrier is closed due to the large amount of water flowing down the Thames. Mr Ford says that the barrier close mostly to lower the level of the river on the other side of Teddington Locks.
What is the use of the barrier? Mr Ford said: "We are lowering the level, inch by inch. It is felt up the Thames, near Moseley - is 12 miles from central London. This area is especially feels the impact of the tide. It seems that a few inches, it is not so much, but it can be the difference between whether water remains at ground level or flow into the house. " The barrier was closed on Tuesday at 10:30 GMT, to be opened with the tide. Caretaker Ford believes that it will be closed again on Wednesday.
According to forecasts professionals barrier, the weather will get worse - these are the results of the readings that are used to predict storms. The highest point of the tide expected on Wednesday. Throughout almost all of its history, London was not the barrier. In 1928 as a result of a spill of the Thames between the City and Southwark areas to the east and between Putney and Hammersmith in the west of the river, killing 14 people. As evidenced by contemporary sources, the water level in the streets up to 4 feet (1, 2 mers).
1928: The last flood in London associated with the spill Thames
In 1953, the flow of water from the North Sea has led to the death of 1 person in London and flooding in the Silverton area, which was the impetus for the creation of a special safeguard mechanism. Creating a barrier began in 1974, and 10 years later, held its grand opening. The barrier should serve until 2030. Recent studies have shown that even with a rise in sea level as a result of the expected climate change, provide barrier protection to the 2060-2070 year.
The head of Foster + Partners, Norman Foster, with the support and assistance of colleagues from the firm Halcrow and Volterra presented to the public, perhaps his most ambitious concept - the infrastructure plan Thames Hub.
The subtitle of the project can be translated as "Integral Vision of Britain." The main idea contained in this paper are as follows. Albion infrastructure is outdated and requires reorganization. In an increasingly globalized economy and the growth of population quality infrastructure can be a major competitive advantage for the state. Foster offers to create a giant "spinal cord" or "ridge" (it is called - Spine), passing through the country and combines the transport, information and energy flows.
The most important object "range" will be a hub in the Thames, Thames Hub, - a giant transport interchange and logistics hub, which includes air, river, sea and rail links. The project involves the construction of high-speed train line chetyrehputnoy Orbital Rail, which connects all the radial lines of the London Underground; river ports in the delta Thames; tunnel connecting London with the hub; "Estuary" airport (capacity - 150 million passengers a year.) Logistics matrix binder river ports and harbors Southampton Liverpool; storage centers and high-speed Internet networks and so on.
Lord Foster is convinced that the hub that will connect directly to the markets of Europe, will be the key to the future prosperity of the UK. He is supported by well-known economist and Roseville Bridget (Bridget Rosewell), Chairman of the Board of Directors of Volterra Consulting and co-founder of Thames Estuary Research and Development Company (TESTRAD).
Well, it functions in order to avoid something like this here: