10 ridiculous things that Victorians made in the name of science
The phrase "Victorian science" is associated with many serious bearded scientists in bowler hats who peer into microscopes. And it does not even occur to him that these prim scientists connected the electric current to his genitals and tried to teach the alphabet and the dogs do a lot more frankly strange things.
1. On a balloon into space
Glacier scientist James tried to make the first manned space flight 100 years before Yuri Gagarin. In 1862, Glacier and Henry Koksvell went on a hot air balloon to explore "ocean of air that is above the atmosphere." Their expedition was financed by the government, but "something went wrong". About 8 kilometers above the Earth's temperature dropped to minus 20 degrees Celsius, which led to the death of animals that scientists took with him to monitor them.
After a further 1, 6 km both men pitched partial paralysis due to frostbite. At an altitude of 11 kilometers, both men lost consciousness from lack of oxygen. Fortunately Koksvell had teeth (arms were paralyzed) to pull the cord valve air cylinder in the ball etching, after which it began to fall to the ground.
2. Telepathic interview with politicians
editor of The Pall Mall Gazette, VT Stead was convinced that he could talk to people using only the power of your mind (at the time, many believed in the hidden psychic abilities). Stead tried to telepathically send instructions to his secretary to dictate instructions to their authors in another country, and also tried to question well-known politicians mentally.
3. Learning to read dogs
Sir John Lubbock
Sir John Lubbock was one of the leading scholars of Victorian England. During his long career, he invented the words "Neolithic" and "Paleolithic", became provost of the University of London, and brought electric streetlights Thomas Edison in England. And he wasted hundreds of hours trying to teach your dog to read.
Lubbock was convinced that dogs can be trained to understand English, and not just simple commands such as "sit" and "guard", but the whole complex sentences. To this end, he put before her dog huge board with proposals to them and tried to ensure that the animal understood these phrases.
4. Communication with Mars
Mr Giovanni Schiaparelli
In 1888, Giovanni Schiaparelli announced the opening of channels on Mars. Almost immediately, this has caused a craze - attempts to contact with the Martians in any way possible. One of the craziest attempt was made in 1892. The wealthy French bequeathed absurdly huge amount of money to create a network of giant mirrors all over the world.
These mirrors were to transmit messages in Morse code on Mars (reflecting the light flashes). Martians allegedly should have seen these reports to build a similar mirror and transmit their messages flashes on Earth. By 1892 in full swing preparing for the beginning of the use of mirrors to communicate with Mars. But the plan was canceled, because the more sober-minded scientists have noted that Mars moved away from the Earth and the aliens will not see flash mirrors.
5. Points for horses
In 1893 an unsuspecting owner of the horse led to one of the most bizarre trends in science. Convinced that his horse was going blind, an anonymous man came into the store and ordered the optical glasses for a horse. For the owner of the optics of Mr. Dollanda it was the beginning of the desire to provide the horses glasses (because he was convinced that all the horses do not see very well). It is not known how long Dolland suffered his crazy idea, but it lasted long enough to check out the various points on dozens of horses.
6. Connect electric current to his genitals
Victorians liked "real men" and any sign that a man is not a real "male", is a serious cause for concern. To deal with the lack of "male energy" Victorian scientists have come up with one of the most absurd medications in history: a belt that constantly beat electric shock the genitals of man, who was wearing. Those were the days when the electricity is new, so it was considered a potential cure from almost any ailment.
7. Training a
Mr DollandaDzhon Lubbock
John Lubbock believed not only that he can teach dog to read. It turns out he had a second hobby, which was almost as strange as the first. Lubbock was convinced that he could train a wasps and make them an ideal pet. He tried to teach them to eat with his hands, allowing herself to stroke, to accompany him to the meeting and, apparently, to attack his enemies on command. As one would expect, at first, these experiments did not lead to anything good, and Lubbock's just constantly stung. However, surprisingly, he was able to train a wasp to obey his commands.
8. The study of eye criminals sentenced to death
Optografiya - analysis of the eyeball with the aim to reproduce the latest image that people have seen. It sounds strange, but such practice in the Victorian era. In 1880, researchers asked dozens of people sentenced to death, just before his execution, to look at something that very much could impress them. After the death of these people, he examined their eyes, to find out whether they last memorable reflected. Over time, the experiments have started to become more complex.
One bomber was asked to go to the gallows with his eyes closed and one eye open just in time hanging. Oddly enough, he agreed. Optografiya became so widespread that in 1927 the killers destroyed eyeballs of his victims to prevent their identification using optografii.
9. Insane experiments on himself
Dr. August Bier
During the Victorian era there was a medical ethics first. This meant that it was no longer possible to carry out experiments on the poor, captured on the streets. As a result, scientists began to conduct experiments on themselves and their colleagues. Some of these experiments were insane. That only is the study of August Bier for spinal anesthesia. In 1898 a German surgeon and his assistant in August Hildebrand pumped their spines cocaine and began to find out whether they feel is still pain.
Hildebrand blew a hole in the neck of his boss, began to trickle from cerebrospinal fluid. A Bir beat his assistant bludgeon, cut with a knife and burned with fire, and then began to beat him on the testicles. Once it became clear that they do not feel pain, both drunk, celebrating his discovery.
10. to taste all
Mr. William Buckland
William Buckland was a theologian, geologist and one of the few people who hated Charles Darwin. But now we will focus on his country's experiment. At some point in their lives Buckland decided that he should try to eat everything that is possible and to write down their impressions of the taste of it for future generations. "In the name of science" Buckland devouring everything from mice to the puppies urine.
He dined roasted hedgehog, panther, guinea pigs and even canned heart of King Louis XIV. As a result, Buckland became known by the nickname "The man who ate everything." And he carefully described the taste of everything tried. Incredibly, Buckland found the taste disgusting only one "dish" - a common garden mole.