Firearms in Russia
• Firearms in Russia
Around the beginning of 1374 we began to acquire a firearm Teutonic Knights. A little later, in 1378 a similar gunshot squeaked appeared in Hungary, Lithuania and Bohemia. Even in China, firearms began to actively use only in 1366, although the first mention of the simplest devices (bamboo "fire lance") dates back to 1132. By the second half of the XIV century firearms and appeared in Russia: we can say that we were among the first to understand the full value of these weapons.
The emergence in Russia
In one of the chronicles in 1376 marked a case of using the Volga Bulgars of the country, according to the description is quite a hike to the west kulevriny. By 1382 a large number of guns and "mattresses" guarded walls of Moscow: most likely the weapon was purchased somewhere in the West for protection against the Golden Horde.
We can say that Russia has become one of the first powers of the time, where a firearm has been used in large quantities. In the 1400th year arsenals large and important cities (Novgorod, Pskov, Tula, Moscow) contain a sufficient number of firearms to repel the enemy. For the case come and Russian masters, by launching its own matchlock.
The powerful force of
By the middle of the XV century in Russia understood the importance of firearms. Gun allows you to take a hitherto impregnable fortress. Kremlin walls were no longer a serious obstacle to the iron nuclei. Effectively able to use the big guns in the open field. Standing on the Ugra River memorable Tatars also active use of Russian guns.
Prominent gunsmiths West pulled to Russia, because they realize all the benefits of the opening of the case. In 1476, the Italian master Aristotle Fioroventi founded the whole workshop where the cast cannons and kulevriny in Moscow. Up until 1515 came to Russia all the new masters of Germany, Scotland and Italy.
Gun mount was the perfect illustration of the proverb "all genius is simple." Mounted on the wheel gun turned into a very mobile and very menacing weapons of mass destruction. By 1501 at the disposal of Moscow it has been a Field Artillery Regiment.
The powder kernel and
Buy powder and core abroad was too expensive. Therefore, in Russia already in 1494 it started its own production of iron nuclei and granular powder. The latter was more effective than the ubiquitous dust gunpowder.
From about 1382 guns are constantly mentioned in the annals as the first tool in the defense of the city. Guns become truly colossal dimensions: in one of the chronicles in 1463 mentioned a gun, which had to be transported over forty wagons.
Great Russian gunsmith Andrew Chokhov managed to cast the famous Tsar Cannon: the beast in two thousand tons of weight. For 1585, this "dinosaur" was very great. King-caliber guns was 920 mm and the barrel length - 5430 mm.