The history of the first plastic surgery
• The history of the first plastic surgery
Today plastic surgery ahead of the rest: the new operations and modern techniques appear almost every day, allowing everyone to improve their face and body. And it all began? What was the first plastic surgery? Spoiler: the first operation carried out before our era!
In the days of ancient Egypt doctors performed aesthetic operations on the nose, with special attention paid to accuracy stitching. Much later, in the VI century BC, an Indian healer dried Samgita began to practice skin transplants to correct the defects of the nose, the donor tissue for operations criminals and enemies of the prisoners became prisoners. One of the major obstacles to the development of plastic surgery in this period was the lack of powerful painkillers.
Education and New Era
In the age of Enlightenment, thanks to the invention of anesthesia and antiseptic aesthetic surgery began to develop intensively. It was then that appeared the term "plastic surgery", which was first used in 1798. French surgeon Dezolt. In 1893 in Germany published the "Handbook of Plastic Surgery." A powerful impetus to plastic surgery has given the First World War: the veterans did not want to put up with the shortcomings and addressed to surgeons with requests to improve the appearance of one or another of the damaged parts of the body.
In the USSR conditional beginning of the spread of plastic surgery is considered to be in 1936 - was the first time in Russian published the book E. Eytnera "Cosmetic surgery", which became the basis for the development of the healthcare industry. But the Soviet medical schools at that time did not have the necessary scientific basis, and only thanks to the outstanding surgeons AG Lapchinskii and AM Litinskii in the USSR there was a first generation of surgeons-plastics. In the 1950s, perfected skin grafting technique, it is possible to carry out the operation under local anesthesia and plastic surgery have become safer and more common. Among the first star of the Soviet patients was Lyubov Orlova - his face actress trust only the chief plastic surgeon of the USSR Alexander Shmelev. In 1965, Orlov at the age of 63 years has done a facelift and neck, which will get rid of wrinkles and restore facial contours clear.
In the plastic Hollywood came around the same time. So, with the help of painful surgery electrolysis hairline changed Marilyn Monroe. However, the main manipulation of Monroe began to nose: the most famous blonde in the world has become one of the first Hollywood stars who decided to rhinoplasty. In the middle of the XX century, even for Hollywood rhinoplasty it was dubious and dangerous experiment, but the plastic surgeon Monroe proved genius: an amended Marilyn tip of the nose is so in tune with the proportions of her face, that it is still considered canonical when it comes to matters of feminine beauty. After a couple of decades, plastic surgery has become the main weapon of the stars in the struggle for the beauty of following a healthy lifestyle and regular exercise. A special demand is for different types of facelift, mammoplasty, correction of cheekbones, nose, and blepharoplasty.
The invention of silicone
Among the most important scientific inventions of the mid XX century took place silicone - innovative material, which has received widespread in plastic surgery. Initially it was used for the correction of skin imperfections, but in 1962 an American doctor Thomas Cronin invented and introduced to the masses silicone breast implant. Just over 10 years of innovation has gained universal popularity and was used for the correction of virtually all parts of the face and body.
In the eighties of the XX century plastic surgeons and their supporters have done a lot for the promotion of plastic surgery in the society, and economic growth has made plastic surgery a relatively affordable for the masses. Development continued during the nineties, despite the close attention on the part of health authorities in many countries. At the beginning of the XXI century, cosmetic surgery waiting for a new round of popularity associated with technologies that allow to carry out such surgery, which previously could only dream of. An important role was played by the IT-sphere - the internet did much to popularize plastic.