The fate of the horse, the intellect is equated to the human
He was considered a genius and animal intelligence was equated to a man. About him the newspapers, watch it attracts people from all over the world. Alas, the glory was not long, and it was followed by exposure. In the last years of his life into oblivion. It is not known whether the horse can feel just like people, but if so, the horse nicknamed the Clever Hans could only sympathize.
At the end of the XIX century, a retired math teacher Wilhelm von Austin caught fire fashionable at the time to develop the idea of animal cognition. At first, he tried to teach arithmetic account of cats, but to no avail. Then he took the bear, but also in vain. Austin then decided to try to train a horse.
B. Austin, the owner of the miracle horse.
In 1888, the old man bought a foal breed Orlov trotter, which was considered to have the most contact and riders trained.
Austin pet named Hans and began his studies, and, behaved "classes" rather irritably. He often shouted at his horse and even beat him. And then a miracle happened: during one of these sessions the old man wrote on the board the number "three" and the horse in response to three times struck his hoof. Austin was happy. From that moment began to show owner Hans incredible abilities. Whatever I asked the owner (whether an arithmetic task, or any date on the calendar), the horse all the answers correctly, otstukivaya hoof repeatedly.
Background Austin began to speak with Hans to the public street, and every time these ideas made real furor. Horse figured examples with fractions, he could guess the name of a man from the crowd, to distinguish colors, denominations, and even people's faces could be distinguished from the pure musical chord dissonant. What is surprising, Hans answered correctly not only on the oral questions, but also on writing, from which it appeared that he knows how to read German. Rumors about the unusual horse flew over the whole of Germany. However, Austin wanted not only to national glory, but also recognition at the official level. But here is how to draw the government's attention? Then the old man came up with a clever move.
In the summer of 1902 he gave an ad in the military newspaper: "For sale a beautiful stallion. He distinguishes between ten colors, reads, knows the four arithmetic operations, etc. Etc... " Of course, Austin is not going to sell Hans, but his ruse worked: the very next day to the home of his cavalry officers knocked. In fact, they have come more out of curiosity, and at the same time and because of the desire to make fun of a crank, which imagines about his horse knows what. However, after the Austin officers demonstrated a unique ability to Hans, the desire to joke immediately gone and they left very impressed.
Soon, the abilities of the horse is already talk of the whole army, and the information reached even to the Minister of Education, not to mention the foreign journalists. About Hans even wrote the newspaper "New York Times", however, it sounded somewhat ironic headline: "A wonderful horse Berlin! He knows everything, but just do not say! "
In order to investigate the phenomenon of the horse, we created a special commission of "experts", which consisted of 13 people. Among them were a veterinarian, trainer circus, cavalry officer, the director of the capital's zoo and even a few school teachers. He headed the commission respected psychologist Carl Stumpf. After a few months of "research" was the verdict: the part of the owner is not revealed evidence of fraud, and the animal actually gives the correct answers on their own with a probability of almost 90%.
Carl Stumpf as a man highly educated could not believe his eyes, but he personally conducted the survey! To completely make sure that he is not mad, Stumpf asked his pupil Oscar Pfungst detailed study the phenomenon of the horse.
Hans again subjected to experiments that took place in the courtyard of the Berlin University psychology. According to the method that was developed by his teacher, Pfungst variety of conditions in which the horse questioned. For example, Hans answered the questions of both the Austin and strangers, without the presence of the owner. He also "worked" both alone and in the presence of other horses. In another block of experiments he even turned a blind eye, demanding that he knocked hoof blindly.
The horse was extremely exhausted by endless research and sometimes refused to work. Several times he even kicked a hoof experimenters, but they were adamant.
Finally, Pfungst able to identify an interesting pattern. The horse always answered correctly, if he asked a question the master and if Hans had seen him. If Hans had heard only the voice of the old man, his human intellect vanished without a trace. In addition, in cases where the owner of the animal offered to solve the problem, the answer to which is not known, Hans only got to correctly answer 6% of cases. The same thing happened to work with strangers: Hans cope with the task only when the "examiner" he saw, and if he knew the answer to your question.
The study showed that Hans - the usual horse, just an unusually sensitive and sly. After each hoofbeats he closely followed the reaction of a person catching when to stop. His attention has not escaped any facial expressions or eye expression or posture. As it turned out, if a person knows the answer to your question, he unwittingly gives himself, even if trying to appear impartial.
To fix the result, Pfungst successfully taught the same procedure your dog Nora, and then he learned to "read the mind".
A cartoon in the foreign press.
In its report, "Clever Hans. Contribution to experimental psychology of animals and humans "Pfungst said that by studying the behavior of the horse, can now at will call Hans any reaction, even without asking the relevant question, but only with the help of his facial expressions and movements of one or another."
Meanwhile, Austin himself was very offended for his horse, and did not believe Pfungst conclusions, calling them "scientific joke". For a time he even toured with Hans on German cities, and then moved to Prussia, where he soon died.
The further fate of Hans developed sad. They are interested in the rich jeweler who still decided to prove that the horse - a genius. He took Hans himself put in a stall with two other horses and hours "tested" animals.
A cartoon in the foreign press.
Since 1916 about Hans has not been heard. It was said that the First World War it was used "off-label" - harnessed to a cart, making transporting ammunition. And his amazing ability to capture a person's response in the scientific community called "clever Hans effect".
Let him and did not recognize the most intelligent, but he made a contribution to science.