Story home Slavs household items
Run the economy in Russia was not easy. Without access to modern benefit of mankind, the ancient masters invented objects of everyday life, which help a person cope with a variety of cases. On many of these inventions we have forgotten today because of technology, household appliances and the change of life style completely replaced them. But despite this, the originality of engineering solutions ancient objects are not inferior to modern.
The storage trunk
For many years, people kept their valuables, clothing, money and other little things in the chests. There is a version that they were invented in the Stone Age. It is known that they were used by the ancient Egyptians, Romans and Greeks. Due to the armies of the invaders and nomadic tribes, chests spread throughout the Eurasian continent, and gradually came to Russia.
The chests were decorated with paintings, fabric, thread and patterns. They could serve not only as a hiding place, but the bed, a bench or chair. The family, which had a few chests, was considered wealthy.
One of the most important subjects of the economy in Russia was considered sadnik. He had the kind of broad flat shovel on a long handle and intended to send the bread or cake in the oven. Russian master object manufactured from a solid piece of wood, primarily aspen, basswood or alder. Finding the right size and the right quality of wood, it splits into two parts, each carving out of a long board. After which they smoothly ostrugivali and traced the contour of the future sadnika, trying to remove all sorts of knots and bulges. Cutting out the desired object, it thoroughly cleaned out.
Rogach, poker, chapelnik (Skovorodnikov)
With the advent of the oven, these things have become indispensable in the household. Usually they are stored in podpechnom space and were always on hand at the mistress. A standard set of furnace tooling considered several types Ukhvatov (large, medium and small), and two chapelnik poker. To avoid confusion in subjects cut markings on their arms. Often such utensils were made to order at the village blacksmith, but there were craftsmen who could make poker at home easily.
Hammer and millstones
At all times, the bread was considered the main product of Russian cuisine. Flour for its preparation recovered from the harvested crops that are planted each year and collected manually. Helping them in the crescent - a device having a shape of an arc with a sharpened blade on the wooden handle.
As required, the harvested crop farmers were ground into flour. This process is facilitated manual grinders. For the first time, such a gun was found in the second half of the 1st century BC. e. Hand grinder has the form of two circles, the sides of which abut each other. The top layer had a special hole (filled therein grain) and a handle, with which the grindstone rotates the upper part. It manufactures such utensils of stone, granite, wood or sandstone.
Pomelo has the form of the cutting at the end of which was attached pine, juniper twigs, rags, urine or firewood. The name attribute of purity derived from the word revenge, and it was used exclusively for cleaning the ash in the furnace cleaning or near it. To keep order in the whole hut was used broom. With them a lot of proverbs and sayings was due, which are still on the lips of many.
Like bread, an important resource has always been water. To make a dinner, drink or wash the cattle, it was necessary to bring. Faithful assistant in this was a rocker. It had a curved stick to which the ends were attached special hooks: they clung to the bucket. Rocker made of linden wood, willow or aspen. The first memo on this fixture date back to the 16th century, but archaeologists of Novgorod the Great set of rocker arms have been found, made in 11-14 centuries.
Trough and Rubel
In ancient times, the laundry washed by hand in special vessels. For this purpose, it served as the trough. Furthermore, it has been used for feeding animals, as feeders, kneading, cooking pickles. The name of the item received from the word "bark", because originally it was made out of it the first trough. Subsequently, it became a master of the half deck, hollowing logs in the recess.
Upon completion of the washing and drying of linen ironed using Rubel. He had the appearance of a rectangular board with the notches on one side. Things neatly wound on a rolling pin, placed on top and rolled Rubel. Thus, the linen fabric is softened and leveled. Smooth side painted and decorated with carvings.
Cast iron iron
In place of Rubel iron iron appeared in Russia. It indicated by this event to the 16th century. It is worth noting that he was not all, because the cost is very expensive. In addition, the iron was heavy and stroking them was harder than the old way. There are several types of irons, depending on the heating method: then covered in some coals, while others were heated in a furnace. I weighed a unit of 5 to 12 kg. Later, coal was replaced with cast-iron ingots.
An important component of Russian life was spinning wheel. In ancient Rus' it was also called "whorl", from the word "spin". Popular were distaffs-stems, having a form of a flat board, on which sit the spinner with a vertical neck and shovels. The upper part of the distaff richly decorated with carved or painted. At the beginning of the 14th century the first spinning-wheel appeared in Europe. They looked like a wheel, which is located perpendicular to the floor and the cylinder with the spindle. Women with one hand supplied to the spindle thread, while the other wheel is scrolled. This way of twisting the fibers was easier and faster, which greatly facilitates the work.