Inventions in medicine, which radically changed the world
Breakthrough medical invention.
Medical science has always been one of the most advanced areas of science. Occurred over the years, advances in medical science have opened or ineffective alternative to earlier procedures, or have created a solution previously unexplored medical problems. Technology has also played a big role in how to make medical science more efficient and more indispensable than ever before. In this review historical invention which revolutionized the medical science.
A breakthrough in medicine: a stethoscope.
Before the stethoscope was invented, doctors listen to the heartbeat of his patient, putting his ear to their chest, that was pretty rude and inefficient method. For example, if the patient has a significant body fat, this method did not work.
This is the situation facing the French physician Rene Lennek, when he could not accurately estimate the heart rate of one of his patients because of too much fat on his chest. He invented the "stethoscope" in the form of a hollow wooden tube that amplifies the sound coming from the lungs and heart. This principle of sound amplification has not changed so far.
2. The X-ray
A breakthrough in medicine: X-rays.
It is difficult to correct diagnosis and treatment of injuries, such as fractures, no X-ray imaging technology. X-ray radiation was accidentally discovered when a German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen studied the process of passing an electrical current through the gas with a very low pressure.
The scientist noted that the cathode ray tube in a darkened room, covered with barium-platinotsianidom, lit by fluorescent light. Because cathode rays are invisible, he did not know what kind of rays cause a glow and called them X-ray. The scientist was the first in the history of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his discovery.
3. Mercury thermometer
A breakthrough in medicine: a mercury thermometer.
Today thermometers have become so ubiquitous that even impossible to determine who invented this device. Gabriel Fahrenheit for the first time in 1714, invented the mercury thermometer, which is still used today, although the first instance of the device to measure the temperature was invented by Galileo at the end of the 1500s. It was founded on the principle of changes in fluid density with respect to its temperature. Today, however, from mercury thermometers being phased out in favor of digital thermometers because of the risk of mercury poisoning.
A breakthrough in medicine: antibiotics.
People often associate the appearance of antibiotics with the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming. In fact, the history of antibiotics began in 1907 with the invention of "salvarsan" Alfred Berthaymom and Paul Ehrlich. Today "salvarsan" known as "arsfenamin". It was the first drug that effectively counteract syphilis, and that it marked the start of antibiotic treatment.
The discovery of Alexander Fleming's penicillin antibacterial features in 1928 was the fact that antibiotics have received massive attention. Today, antibiotics have revolutionized medicine in combination with vaccines helped nearly eradicate diseases such as tuberculosis.
5. The hypodermic needle
A breakthrough in medicine: the hypodermic needle.
Hypodermic needle, despite its simplicity, was invented only about 150 years ago. Prior to that, in ancient Greece and Rome, doctors have used thin hollow tools for injection of fluids into the body. In 1656 the dog was made by intravenous injection quill Christopher Wren. Modern hypodermic needle was invented by Charles Pravasi and Alexander Wood, somewhere in the mid-1800s. Today, such a needle is used to deliver the correct dosage of the inside of a medicament for the treatment of the body, as well as to extract biological fluids with minimal pain and risk of infection.
A breakthrough in medicine: the glasses.
Points - one of the great medical breakthroughs that people usually take for granted. Today, it is not known who invented the first such device. Many centuries ago, scientists and monks used the early prototypes of the modern points that needed to keep in front of his eyes by hand. With the increase in the number of cases of short-sightedness that led to the introduction points in the mass availability of printed books in the late 1800s increased.
A breakthrough in medicine: a pacemaker.
This important discovery was the fruit of the work of two Australian scientists, Mark K. Hill and physics Edgar H. Booth in 1926. The prototype is a portable unit, one of which was connected to the poles brine impregnated pad, and the other - with a needle, which is inserted into a patient's heart chamber. Despite the rough design of the device, the researchers returned to the life of a stillborn child. Today pacemakers are much more complicated, and the average life of the battery in them is 20 years old.
8. The CT and MRI
A breakthrough in medicine: the CT scanner and MRI.
The discovery of X-rays led to a sharp increase in the efforts to find methods of access to even more organs of the body without actually cutting. This subsequently led to the invention of the CT scanner. Its commercial version was invented by Dr. Godfrey Hounsfield, received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1979. CT Scanner can display "several layers of internal" person on several layers of X-ray images. Shortly thereafter, Dr. Raymond V. Damadyan invented a method of differentiating cancerous and normal cells using nuclear magnetic resonance, which was later improved and was named an MRI.
9. Prosthesis and implants
A breakthrough in medicine: prosthetics and implants.
Living with disabilities - a very hard experience not only the physical, but also on a mental and emotional level. The invention of the prosthesis was a big breakthrough that allows people with disabilities to live, not limited to a wheelchair and crutches.
Modern prosthesis made from carbon fiber, which is lighter and stronger than metal, and also looks more realistic. Dentures that are being developed at the moment, have built myoelectric sensors to control the prosthetic brain impulses.
10. Heart Defibrillator
A breakthrough in medicine: heart defibrillator.
Defibrillation of the heart - not a very recent concept. But while she's known for decades for its introduction into clinical practice can thank Claude Beck, who had a successful defibrillation boy's heart during surgery. Today defibrillators save millions of lives worldwide.
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