Mausoleums of different countries
Calls to bury the body of the USSR founder Vladimir Lenin heard almost every year. Meanwhile mausoleum with the remains of the leaders - is not only a Russian feature such facilities exist worldwide. Almost everywhere they attract huge number of tourists, sometimes turning into the main attraction of a city.
January 21, 1924, Vladimir Lenin died. Six days later, his body was placed in a mausoleum - first, temporary, made of wood, for the construction of which had to dynamite the frozen soil, being careful not to damage the communication. Six years later, the body of Lenin was placed in a monumental mausoleum authored by Alexei Shchusev, made of granite. Specifically for the mausoleum was carried out redevelopment Red Square Monument to Minin and Pozharsky moved the (and in 1931 removed all of the St. Basil's Cathedral) and removed the tram tracks. In 1953, the mausoleum placed the embalmed body of Joseph Stalin, but the October 30, 1961 at the famous XXII Congress of the CPSU it was agreed that "serious violations of Stalin, Lenin's precepts ... make it impossible for the abandonment of the coffin with his body in the mausoleum," the dictator and "resettled".
The theme of the mausoleum recently asked Russian President Vladimir Putin, comparing the visit of the leader of the body with the worship of relics of Christian saints. The Head of State concluded that the Soviet government did not really come up with anything new, but "customized to their own ideology that mankind has long been invented." Putin suggested that communism is in fact a new religion. It was created during the most active struggle against Christianity and other faiths as "militant atheists" destroyed the priests, shooting, and referring to the camps, where the temples were destroyed, the president of the Russian Federation.
Mausoleum in Slavonic
Russia - is not the only country in the world, the former head of which rests not in the cemetery and in a specially built mausoleum for him. Not surprisingly, most of these facilities started in the twentieth century, found in the former sotsbloka. Thus, in the "House of Flowers" in the Serbian capital Belgrade is buried the leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito. He died in 1980, however, the mausoleum was opened to the public only two years later. leader's body is not embalmed and placed in special marble sarcophagus.
This place, unlike many other mausoleums in various countries around the world, was created before Tito's death - in 1975. Originally there was a house, nicknamed "White yard" that surround a lush garden.
After the divorce from his fourth wife Jovanka head of Yugoslavia often spent time at the villa. And there he shortly before his death ordered to arrange his funeral. It was decided to maintain the integrity of a rich garden with exotic plants, even in the Balkans - in memory of Tito, who was a passionate gardener.
In the "House of Flowers", in a marble sarcophagus, also rests and last wife Jovanka Tito. After the death of her husband she was 20 years - until 2000 - has stayed under house arrest in poor conditions, undermined her health. It was only after the fall of Slobodan Milosevic's regime Jovanka released. Three years later, at age 89, she died.
Tito's grave until 2006 guarded the guard of honor of the Yugoslav People's Army, but now it is run by the Ministry of Culture of Serbia, and the guard of honor there is not provided. According to the established tradition, every year on the day of the death of Tito, May 4, visited the tomb of his family, as well as members of the various anti-fascist organizations. Calls to bury the body politics, as in Russia, it sounded repeatedly. However, unlike in Russia, with a much less benign consequences. For example, after in 1990 it was declared by the leader of the Serbian nationalist right-wing party, Vojislav Seselj, against him was a criminal case. The mausoleum was buried and the leader of the Bulgarian Communist movement Georgi Dimitrov. After his death in 1949. The white marble mausoleum with columns in the neoclassical style was built in Sofia. It was established at the beginning of the Boulevard of King Liberator, right in the center of the Bulgarian capital. Body deserved Communist embalmed and placed in a glass sarcophagus, which made the Soviet master Nicanor Kurochkin. In 1990, when the Soviet Socialist Republic of Bulgaria ceased to exist, Dimitrov's body was reburied at the central cemetery of Sofia. Officially, this was done in accordance with the requests of family policy.
Two years later, Sofia Community Council decided to blow up the mausoleum. However, the communist temple walls were so strong that it was able to do only at the fifth attempt in 1999.
ruins of a building and then took out a few days, and some residents of the capital of Bulgaria, even took some of them as souvenirs. Now this place is concreted area.
However, the tradition of the creation of the mausoleums in the Balkans did not begin with the Soviet expansion. Thus, even in the middle of the XIX century on Mount Lovcen was buried secular and spiritual leader of Montenegro Petar II Njegos, he gave the corresponding order for six years before his death. However, to fulfill the last wishes of the supreme ruler was not immediately apparent: the subjects were afraid that on the grave attack Turkish pasha of Skadar (Shkodra), so that the first ruler buried in the Cetinje monastery, near the grave of his predecessor Peter I Petrovic. Four years after the death of Peter II, the remains still moved up the mountain. During the First World War, we had to organize another "transfer" to the convent because the chapel started bombing the Austro-Hungarian army - but in 1925 the monarch's remains returned to the mountain. In April 1942, Italian troops again damaged the chapel, but this time the sarcophagus has been decided not to transfer, and build around it a new building of the mausoleum. Now the gate structure, the roof of which is covered with gold, guarded by statues of two Montenegrins. Inside the building a 28-ton statue of Petar II Petrovic-Njegos. Behind the mausoleum is an observation deck, which overlooks the entire Montenegro.
is not alien to the traditions of the national leaders of burial in the mausoleum was also a country that is from Montenegro only through the sea. In 1938, after a long illness, he died of liver founder of the modern Turkish state, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Until 1953 the remains of the policy were in Ethnography Museum in Ankara, but then a special mausoleum "anıtkabir" was built for him. The total area of the complex, including the mausoleum itself, park, museum and other buildings is 750 thousand sq. M. M. The complex consists of four components: Roads Lions, Peace Park, Ceremonial Plaza and the Hall of Fame. The complex is including a unique collection of Ataturk car.
If Europe today a mausoleum with the body of the former head of the country is perceived as a gimmick, the countries of the Far East this method of burial has become almost commonplace. For example, this is how it was decided to honor the memory of the first President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh.
In 1923, he was an active member of the Communist International, visited Moscow, and even got to the funeral of Vladimir Lenin. It is unlikely that the Vietnamese Communist thought then that many years later he himself was buried with honors not lower.
Ho Chi Minh died in 79 years in 1969, and did not live up to the withdrawal of US troops from South Vietnam. In his will the political leader asked to cremate himself, put ashes in three ceramic urns and buried in every part of the country - north, south and center, where he was born. However, his successors decided otherwise. Body "Grandfather Ho" embalmed Soviet specialists, especially for burial in the center of Hanoi Ba Dinh Square was built mausoleum. The ensemble includes a museum, the mausoleum itself and the house on stilts, the former head of state. Around the mausoleum is a garden, where there are about 250 species of flora from different regions of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh's body lies in the central hall in a glass coffin. Entrance to the tomb of the guard of honor guards. Photos inside are strictly prohibited. The Shrine is and on Tiananmen Square in Beijing, where the latter has found peace first Chairman Mao Zedong of China. Museum and memorial complex as well as in Russia, located right in the heart of the capital, next to the iconic buildings (House of the PRC assembly and Grand National Opera). Cost mausoleum began immediately after the leader's death in 1976.
The perimeter of the complex total area of 20 sq. M. 44 m are placed on the granite octagonal column 17, 5 m in height. On both sides of the mausoleum installed two large-scale sculptural groups dedicated to the establishment of China's socialist government. Inside the mausoleum of several rooms - North Hall visitors, the Hall of the revolutionary achievements, which is now the museum of the history of life China Eminent Persons, cinema and South Hall. Mao Zedong's body lies in the Hall of visitors in a crystal coffin with a granite base. The leader wore a gray suit and covered with Chinese flag state. Incidentally, the embalmed body of the Great Helmsman without the participation of Soviet scientists - Chinese experts have done this work on their own.
Original mausoleum turned leaders of North Korea - Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il, its official name - the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun. As is the case with the tomb of Tito, this building was originally built not for a funeral, and to stay in it people: in 1976 the first official residence of the leader of North Korea Kim Il Sung was established there. He died in 1994, having survived many of his colleagues from both socialist and capitalist country.
After the death of his father the new head of the country, Kim Jong Il ordered to alter a palace in the mausoleum. According to some reports, it cost the budget a poor country at $ 100 million. The palace was also decided to keep some things Kim Il Sung, including car and even his personal armored railway carriage. In 2011, he passed away and Kim Jong Il. His body was put up for public farewell for 10 days, before it over him "conjured" Russian-embalmers experts. He was buried in the same policy of the mausoleum, where the body of his father.
The admission of foreigners into the mausoleum is possible only during the tourist trips that need to issue through the relevant state bodies of the DPRK.
Inside the memorial palace forbidden to photograph the body of the DPRK rulers, talking loudly and smoking. In addition, visitors to the mausoleum set the dress code, "decent clothes not bright colors."
Rest in peace, Comandante
The mausoleum built in memory of the most popular and charismatic revolutionary leaders of America - Ernesto Che Guevara. Following the execution in 1967 on the territory of Bolivia, Guevara's body was tied to the helicopter skids and transported to the nearby town of Vallegrande, where he paraded the press. After the military surgeon amputated and placed in a container with a brush formalin hands Che (to identify fingerprints killed fingers), Bolivian army officers have taken the body in an unknown direction and refused to say where it was buried. It was only in 1995, in an interview with biographer of Guevara's Bolivian General Mario Vargas he said that "he participated in the burial of Che", and where it is buried in a mass grave the body of Commander and his friends.
Two years later, out of the runway near Vallegrande was exhumed body with amputated arms, which was later identified as belonging to Guevara, after which the remains returned to Cuba.
In the same year the ashes of Guevara and his six comrades killed during the guerrilla campaign in Bolivia, was reburied with full military honors in dating back ten years before the mausoleum in the city of Santa Clara, where he won the decisive battle of the Cuban revolution. The architecture of the complex is symbolically displayed many aspects of the life of Che Guevara, for example, seven-meter bronze statue of the Commander points to the place of his death. The monument is surrounded by reliefs, reproducing pages of the biography of the famous revolutionary. Taking photographs inside the mausoleum, which also buried for bronze medallions his 29 companions, it is strictly prohibited.
The man, who has declared himself the heir of the ideas of Che Guevara, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, who died in 2013, also as a result was not buried in the cemetery. Venezuelan authorities were considering embalming his body, but eventually abandoned this step: a decision on this had to be taken much earlier, as stated by Chavez's successor Nicolas Maduro, and, moreover, would have to take the remains of seven or eight months in Russia. As a result, a coffin placed in a marble sarcophagus in the Museum of the Revolution in Caracas, where it is likely to remain until such time as the country's current leadership does not think of anything to do with him. In the meantime, access to the sarcophagus and biographical Chavez photo exhibition opened on Saturday, the day at 16:25 (the time of the death of the head of Venezuela) cannon shot is made with the museum grounds. Taking pictures and videos in the museum is prohibited.