The largest man-made underground world
In the tunnels under Paris led the guests even Emperor Napoleon III. And after for visits with 2 km of underground tunnels, they have become the most famous catacombs in the world, whose gloomy corridors inspire directors, writers and developers of computer games. However, the underground city, lurking just beneath his feet, and can be found in many other countries, people have always liked to dig tunnels.
The Catacombs of Rome
By the Eternal City more than 60 catacombs hidden a total length of about 150 km. Most of them are located along the ancient Appian Way. It is believed that many of the catacombs were built by Christians during times of persecution. Underground galleries decorated with frescoes and mosaics with scenes from the Old and New Testament. In some catacombs electricity and they are open to the public.
Construction of the catacombs started around the 14th century. Build a network of underground tunnels, it was decided to protect the citizens during the military conflict. Existing basements interconnected galleries, creating almost an entire underground city with wells, storage of food, and traps for enemies. In the catacombs could hide all the inhabitants of Znojmo and food supplies enough to perezhidanie even a long siege.
In addition to the London Underground under the city is an endless network of galleries that were built at different times. Depending on the location, they had very different purpose: from the cemetery to the traditional underground shelter. Some of the most famous are located adjacent to the Camden market and tested at the freight yard on Primrose Hill. Once they were stalls for ponies who used to sort wagons. Now the gallery Victorian times was turned into a vintage shop with antique furniture, accessories and clothing.
Despite the fact that the catacombs are considered to be the youngest, they are also the most extended in the world. they appeared as a result of limestone mining. corridors network extends to many-many kilometers, but due to the fact that the development of deposits takes place to this day, continue to grow tunnels. About their length is estimated at 2500-3000 kilometers.
Catacombs of the Cathedral of San Francisco
An integral part of the cathedral and monastery of St. Francis of Assisi, built in 1774, has become a network of underground tunnels. Following the tradition of burying the dead in the territory of the churches, it was used as a cemetery. Buried under the monastery until 1808, until the cemetery was not built for the redivision of the city. Researchers estimate that about 70,000 graves have been made in the catacombs. In addition to the catacombs vaults have secret passageways, linking to the holy tribunal.
The Catacombs of St. Paul and St. Agatha
As in the Roman Empire to bury people within the city limits was forbidden, quarries cities Mdina and Rabat adapted for cemeteries. The walls of the catacombs covered with limestone powder, so here created a microclimate with a constant temperature and humidity. According to legend, it is here that the apostle Paul prayed, shipwrecked near the coast of Malta. In 1998, the catacombs were made to the list of World Cultural Heritage by UNESCO.
The catacombs of Sacromonte Abbey
The abbey was founded in 1600 on the hill of Valparaiso. During the Roman Empire here was mined rock, and the remaining part of the underground steel production Abbey. A place shrouded in legends. According to one of them, it is in these catacombs the remains of St. Cecilia were found. Subsequently, he was declared the patron saint of Granada and on the first Sunday in February arrange a holiday in his honor.
The Catacombs of St.. Stefan
Church of the middle of the 14th century was built on the site of the ancient cemetery, taking the count back to Roman times. In 1732 Emperor Charles VI forbade burial in cemeteries within the city walls. From that moment the dead were buried under the ground, including in the crypt under the cathedral of St. Stephen. While Joseph II ordered not to do away with the underground repository, under the cathedral had to bury 0000 about 11 people. Here lie the bodies of Austria eminent personalities from different eras, more than 70 members of the royal family of Habsburg, and the bishop's crypt still buried supreme hierarchs of the Austrian Church.
The Catacombs of Kom el-Shukaf
Prior to 1900, no one suspected the existence of the catacombs, while above them accidentally