What can be done in space

"Space from us far, only an hour away, if your machine is able to go up," - he said the British astronomer Fred Hoyle. So, you have such a machine. So, you're in orbit. Now forget everything you take for granted on Earth.

But stop. Not in the open space, of course - to the ISS. In the vacuum of space without a spacesuit, you will not last a couple of minutes. First your lungs and digestive tract fill the expanding gases (due to the fact that no external pressure space) inside the body. From this light burst, the water on the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and nose quickly boils and evaporates, and the gas bubbles get into the bloodstream. Solar radiation would leave burns on the skin. And here it is banal and set himself choking. And then boiling blood ... Well, okay, you're on the ISS. All right. But there is a lot of their "no." Aside from the obvious - walking, standing, lying down - in the cosmos can not be ...

What can be done in space

See the twinkling stars

Everything is simple. In the words of the "universal man" by Leonardo da Vinci, "the blue of the sky is due to the thickness of the illuminated particles of air, which is located between the Earth and the blackness located at the top." For the same reason in the cosmos is not blinking stars. Due to the "thickness of the air particles", that is to say the atmosphere. Look at the stars through it - about the same as what to look across the water. The water is moving, so the stars begin to "shiver". But the air in our atmosphere - in constant motion, so even with different densities and in space there is no air. And there is no flicker and no.

What can be done in space

Write a ballpoint pen

Have you ever wondered why the pen stops writing on the wall or ceiling? It is clear - because of the fact that the ink does not come to a tiny ball at the end of the rod. Ordinary pens need the force of gravity, which will "push" the ink to the bottom of the handle and you will be able to write. But what is written in orbit? Soviet cosmonauts wrote wax pencils (graphite rods can break off and become a threat to people's respiratory equipment and systems). American astronauts used the markers. There is a famous legend that NASA has allocated $ 1 million to create a pen that can write in the absence of gravity. It is not true. "The handle weightlessness" or Space Pen, was actually designed (and now widely used on the ISS), but NASA and the American inventor and entrepreneur Paul Fischer. And to create it really went more than $ 1 million, but because of personal funds of a businessman. The ink in the "space pen" are in a special pressurized cartridge of compressed nitrogen. And can write, according to the developers, not only in weightlessness, but also under water, on wet and greasy paper, at any angle and at extreme temperatures. The price of such handles for "Apollo" program (the same as the Americans went to the moon) was $ 6.

What can be done in space

Boil Kettle

The "earth" sense of the word. Let us remember high-school physics. The higher up, the lower the boiling point of water. All the matter in the atmospheric pressure. On top of the mountain, it will be less than at its base. Therefore, in the absence of pressure in the space, the water boils almost instantly (and only then it will freeze particles of steam, as space is very cold). But on the ISS pressure (and temperature, of course) to create an artificial (the astronauts would simply have died without it), though not the same as on Earth, but to boil water when it is still possible. It boils at 85 ° C. But not all.

The boiling pressure is not only important, but also the convection - simply mixing the liquid by heating (due to gravity). ISS no convection (including air convection, so powerful fans are working there; otherwise, the astronauts would have to breathe in the air that had just exhaled, and would soon simply suffocated), so the water in zero gravity begins to boil only in the place heating, and the remainder remains cold. Therefore, the ISS is a special "smart" kettle. The most expensive in the world.

What can be done in space

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Find out the exact time of

According to Einstein's theory of relativity. Do not be alarmed. It's simple. In orbit no gravity (or rather, it is, but very small - the complete absence of attractive forces is possible only in deep space, where there are no major nearby planets and stars). But she ISS orbits the Earth at a breakneck pace - 7, 9 km / s. And based on the theory of relativity, gravity and high speed change over time, slowing it down. It is not necessary to delve into. Just accept as fact - time to the ISS on Earth flows differently. On Earth, faster, slower than the ISS. A fraction of seconds. What nonsense? If the astronaut stayed for a couple of months orbit. But when he returned from a journey to another star, you will not find on Earth, even their great-grandchildren - by the time they are going to die.

What can be done in space

scented perfume

ISS is simply forbidden to take them. And that's why. In space varies sense of smell and taste. Not necessarily strong, and everyone in different ways. But mainly in the direction of more insipid and a pungent smell. Ie soup is some unsalted and smell the roses some very sharp. In the first place, because in conditions of weightlessness in the upper part of the body accumulates more blood than it does on Earth. Because of this, olfactory and taste buds give a "fail." Taste - less, so the ISS supply all sorts of hot sauces and condiments. Olfactory - on the contrary. So no perfumes and colognes.

By the way, the fragrance has the cosmos itself. Despite his vacuum in which, as is known, odors do not apply (but by no means empty vacuum, a certain number of atoms in it still is). They say it is similar to the smell not fried steak, not welding. A moon smells like gunpowder smoke.

What can be done in space

Throw Sports

No load - atrophied muscles. For the full program. Our body is lazy, it very quickly gets used to the state of weightlessness to the fact that all the "easy and simple". No need to bother to go: swim myself among the countless wires and buttons. Therefore, at the time after returning to the "vale of tears" astronauts some time could not even walk - so their muscles have been weakened. Today, in their mode - and the daily obligatory exercise. Still after the flight they feel it is not a cucumber.

What can be done in space

Sneeze

Of course, you can. But other consequences. More severe than on Earth. If strong sneeze in weightlessness - jet effect is created that person twirl and then a high risk to get on the back of the head, "wall", "ceiling" and "floor" (none of these concepts to the ISS, of course not).

By the way, for the same reason, we do not recommend you to shoot in space (not on the ISS where it will lead primarily to the depressurization of the station, and in a vacuum). Remember Newton's third law. The force acting on the bullet will equally reaction force at the gun, which is in your hands. And that means that for you. But in space there is almost no atoms, constraining your movement in the opposite direction. So be prepared that you will suffer in this very direction. Though at a rate much slower than the bullet (after all, you weigh a lot more). And yes, the bullet will go on forever. And you too. Because, says astronomer Matija Cook: "The universe is expanding faster than the bullet."

What can be done in space

For a long time looking at the flames

To light, for example, match the ISS can be (if we disregard the prohibition on "contraband" such things). But burning it will be different. In weightlessness hot air tends not up, so the flame will not match elongated as in the world, and rounded as swimming cap. And due to the absence of gravity will not occur processes of transition of burning particles from a region of higher temperature to regions of lower, so match quickly extinguished.

What can be done in space