10 major loss of XX century Moscow
For many centuries Moscow is constantly updated, always something to rebuild and remodel, Moscow ravaging fires, and the new authorities. Of course, the leader of the destruction of cultural heritage can be called the 20th century, when the Soviet government declared "we own, we will build a new world" and let a bulldozer large part of the architectural heritage.
Today we will try to show, perhaps subjective, but still the TOP-10 of irreplaceable architectural loss of Moscow. The list can be extended almost indefinitely, we will try to briefly review the most striking loss.
Let's start with the oldest of loss:
1. Big Stone Bridge
It was the old Great Stone Bridge built in the late 17th century is shown in the reconstruction Vasnetsov. In the 18th century, it has really been the biggest and stone, though wearing the official name of the bridge All Saints. Like the old bridge in Paris and Florence, it was all built up with shops, residential premises. Here from morning until late evening crowded.
By the early 19th century, the bridge was overhauled, and, as we would say today, "Cherkizon" broken up and cleared.
The bridge continued to be big and stone, but at the same time ceased to spoil the view of the front of the Kremlin dirty market.
In the mid-1850s, much dilapidated Big Stone Bridge, it was decided to demolish and replace the three-span metal. According to eyewitnesses the supporting structures of the old stone bridge were so strong that they had to blow up.
Bridge 1850 and did not live up to our time, and in 1938 was dismantled, and instead a little further downstream, closer to the Kremlin was built by the current bridge, and all bearing the name of Big Stone, though the value of it is now standard, and the stone there Hardly ever.
2. Old Kremlin
It alarmed at all the news last week that Putin proposed to demolish Stalin's administrative body and to restore the lost monasteries in the Kremlin.
Recall what is at stake:
In this case it is, of course, not talking about yet another lost architectural and historical value:
Cathedral of the Savior on Bor, known since 1330 and demolished in 1933
The temple over the centuries, of course, was rebuilt, but it was considered the oldest building in Moscow that, nevertheless, it did not save. Moscow went on a legend that Stalin, driving in a car near the church and saw the piled wood in the walls in the hearts vokliknul: "Remove Disgraceful!" Clarify what exactly was unhappy "father of nations" did not and pulled down the temple.
3. Walls and towers of Chinatown
The origin of the name of China Town is still unclear. Some historians suggest that it is derived from the word "China", ie bundle of poles, of which originally were built to strengthen the old town. Others are inclined to believe that this is a common Indo-European root denoting the central part of the city, in Russian - it's "China" in the Italian - citta in English - o city, the French - the cité, etc...
Built in the 16th century, is considered one of the landmarks of Moscow Kitai-Gorod wall was almost completely demolished in 1934. By the way, for the sake of a more efficient arrangement of traffic.
Here, for example, looked up to the demolition of the walls of the Lubyanka:
The only its portion kept behind the hotel "Metropol". The passage to be closed, now there is a dump of the hotel and park company vehicles.
4. Lost Tverskaya
So Tverskaya looked back in the 1920s in the area of Kamergersky lane. Most of the building was demolished to plan the reconstruction of Moscow in 1935, with a few exceptions, such as Compound Savvino Storozhevsky monastery (pictured right), which decided to keep, but the rails moved into the yard, where it now can be seen.
5. The Holy Monastery area and
Such was the current Pushkin Square: Pushkin monument still standing on Tverskoy Boulevard, and in its present location of a large bell tower Passion of the monastery.
In Soviet times, the monastery was closed and placed inside the main cathedral of anti-religious museum. The walls and the bell tower covered with propaganda:
In 1938, the monastery was decided to demolish the purpose of the comprehensive reconstruction of the area. Now in its place stands a monument to Pushkin and move the already former cinema "Russia"
6. Red Gate
From once adorned the goal area left on the map, only one name, and behind them the temple was demolished. The gate was originally built under Peter I in 1709 to celebrate the victory in the Battle of Poltava, in the middle of the 18th century was rebuilt in stone. Demolished in 1927, with the expansion Garden ring.
7. Sukharev Tower
midway Sukharev Square from 1695 and until 1934 was a masterpiece of civil architecture, built in the time of Peter, though the image of the town hall zapadnoevroeyskoy, but invariably Russian style.
Demolition Sukharev, despite protests from art critic, historian and suggestions for improvement of the area with the preservation of the tower:
How effectively would look Sretenka, if preserved tower.
8. The Church of the Assumption on Pokrovka
Pokrovka from 1699 to 1936 and features a beautiful example of Moscow Baroque, alas, an abusive official ideology of the Soviet country. During the reconstruction of the temple Pokrovka it was decided to get rid of. Trinity Temple a little further down the street, however, retained, with the beheading and leaving without a steeple.
9. Dog Playground
This type was opened in the middle of this highway Novy Arbat. Dog area was a small area bordered by mansions and completely demolished for stroitelstva highway in the early 1960s. Strange name it owes to the fact that here until the 17th century housed the royal kennels. In the 19th century - it was purely aristocratic place with beautiful mansions and a fountain.
Home Mazurina dog site. Now this place is the eternal traffic jam Novy Arbat.
And, of course, can not do without losses very recently:
And, of course, can not do without losses very recently:
Alas, for the 20th century, we have lost not just a single architectural monument, but the whole area with interesting buildings - charge, descends from Varvarka to the Moskva River embankment. Before the war, the buildings were demolished after the war there was an idea to build a eighth high-rise, but, as a result, have built the hotel "Russia", here now for almost 10 years wasteland, which promise a park "Russian" only works until really no no lead. In the photo above the house of the Association of Nikolskaya Manufactory Vikulov Morozov and his sons, once stood in Varvarka. The once very picturesque old district there were only temples, Romanov Chambers and the Chambers English Court of Varvarka.
Do not preserved, in particular, the amazing "home-ship" with a huge patio with galleries
So the streets and alleys down to the river from the Gostiny Dvor.
Of course, the list of subjective and incomplete. In Moscow, disappeared in some places whole environment such as Arbat lanes, many historical monuments were destroyed. Many houses have been preserved, but in fact rebuilt beyond recognition.
Love Moscow, walk on our city and it will be revealed to you with a very different, beautiful hand.