How to build warships
• How to build warships
Amur Shipbuilding Plant (ASP) - one of the two city-forming enterprise Komsomolsk-on-Amur, at least historically. When the decision on the construction of the city in 1932, involves the construction of two major defense companies - Shipyard for the production of submarines, destroyers and cruisers for the Pacific Fleet (plus civilian vessels) and aircraft for release in the first bombers. Both of these factory-giant still exist - the NEA and KnAAZ. True, the first is in a much worse economic situation. This fact, however, did not visit the company less interesting.
The date of birth of the enterprise is 12 June 1933, when its first plant was built - hull plating. The number of active plant was June 30, 1936, but before that had launched the first submarine - L-11 and L-12. In March of the first destroyer ( "Baku" project 38) it was founded the same year.
In the years of the Great Patriotic War, the stocks of the plant went down, two cruisers, five destroyers and a patrol boat. In addition, the ASP overhauled 17 submarines and produced ammunition.
The territory of the plant mixed feelings. On the one hand, of course grandeur - the area occupied by the NEA, is huge. On the other hand, buildings, shops, communications, bears the stamp of desolation. Somewhere it is visible to the naked eye, somewhere is almost not noticeable - probably depending on the load of a particular part of the enterprise in recent years.
At once it is worth noting that the restricted area we were taken on a bus, and I think the most exotic, say, the corners of the enterprise, we have not looked. However, this was not the purpose of a trip to the factory. It was assumed that the NEA in the day to visit the Governor Vyacheslav Shport, journalists and bloggers were able to get to the company "trailer" and view one of the shops, where they build two new corvette for the Russian Pacific Fleet.
So this very shop at number №17 - stacker production. It seemed to me that watch us, festooned with cameras and continuous shutter clicking, was regarded as wild animals. I'm sure we represented the vanishingly rare sight at sensitive military factory with the management of the old school.
inside the shop turned out to be an order of magnitude more than it seemed when viewed from the outside, from the entrance. In the center of one of the three or four stocks (so-called vast playground in which the ship is on special supports - Keelblock) is assembling "celebrations culprit" - corvette "Perfect" 20380, pledged in the summer of 2006. It is expected that the ship will be launched in late 2014.
to the body standing corvette can climb stairs, ladders leading to the outside corridors, which stretches on both sides of the pile.
I am well aware that the surface warship 2nd rank near maritime zone is not a giant in the background of many other ships. But here in the shop, at a distance of a little more than arm's length, the corvette I was literally shocked.
The length of the housing 104 reaches 5 meters (90 waterline) width - 13 m (11 1 through the water line), overall sludge at full displacement (2200 tons) - about 8 meters (3, 7 - mean).
In the movable keel blocks of something working welders. From the height of the upper gallery people below seem to be the tiny figures that only visually emphasizes the height of the ship's side.
There will be clearly established "an instrument of the main fire" - a tower with a single 100-mm universal artillery unit A-190, which provides a maximum rate of 80 rounds per minute and a range of up to 21, 3 km.
In addition, armed corvettes 20380 includes antiship missile system "Uran" (this is what is the real "main battery") with two chetyrehkonteynernymi launchers. It uses X-35 missiles with a range of up to 130 km. Air defense must provide close-in weapon system 'Dirk-M "(the range to engage targets up to 10 km) and a pair of six-barreled 30-mm gun mounts AK-630M. In addition, the sailors will be armed with portable systems "Igla". To combat submarines and torpedoes enemy's four-pipe installed two 330-mm torpedo complex apparatus "Pack-NK". Also the board includes two arms 14, the 5-mm heavy machine gun, and two antiamphibious grenade DP-64.
Military experts believe that the air defense of the corvette no longer meets modern requirements, so the vehicle serial supposed replacement SPAR 'Dirk-M "on the SAM" Redoubt ". In addition, the upgraded project involves replacing the 20385 anti-ship missiles X-35 rocket to the family "Caliber", as well as the increase in ammunition SAM. However, while on the ASP build corvettes "linear" 20380, as they no longer need a "break-in", easier to manufacture and cheaper.
corvette housing has already been formed, the underlying mechanisms are installed, now is the installation of add-ons. Even the photograph can be seen that it is made of composite materials (based lie fiberglass and carbon fiber). This is done to reduce the radar signature - essentially technology "stealth".
During project development, a lot of attention was paid to reduction of resistance underwater hull, which reduced the capacity of the main power plant (put four diesel engines 16D49), use freed displacement to increase the payload. However, operating experience is not too high reliability of diesel engines. By the way, the maximum speed of 20380 corvettes is 27 knots, cost - 14 knots and cruising range up to 4,000 nautical miles.
Behind the superstructure will be installed landing pad antisubmarine helicopter Ka-27, but the stern was not possible to reach - more is not allowed because of the secrecy. Actually, even tried to ban pictures of the add-in itself, but did it too late - many have already managed to shoot it at a distance, and indeed the ban, as it turned out, not everyone heard.
Typography and general stylistics of billboards in the stack shop vividly calls to mind the Soviet era, as if time stood still inside the plant at the same time most of the enterprise.
However, we can recall that at the Khabarovsk shipyard shop and the area looks much the same, except that the scope of the plant is less - it was built under the smaller-class vessels. In this sense, Kherson Shipyard, we can say lucky - it is easier to provide enterprise usage is sufficient for survival.
was the release of nuclear submarines in the past one of the key specializations ASP. Since the mid-1950s, the corresponding pre-production had begun, and already in 1958 the laying head missile submarine Project 659.
Residents of the Lower Amur is still remembered as up to 1980 and including nuclear submarines quietly spent at the bottom of the river to the sea, camouflaged between the pair of barges (in fact, they say, in a special floating dock pontoon) - Amur depth insufficient for self-immersion huge submarines.
Generating plants and diesel-electric submarines, in particular the famous "Varshavyanka".
The company, of course, dominated by the working age than average, often even a pension, but sometimes there are young people.
I personally saw the outdoor advertising ASP on Prospekt Mira Komsomolsk-on-Amur promised work was not an astronomical salary from 29600 rubles per month. In practice, they say, the average wages significantly lower.
Returning to the ASP products, it is worth noting that the plant has produced a lot of purely civilian courts - more than two hundred, including the icebreakers. At that moment, when I made these photos, the plant also built two vessels for Gazflot, it is now one of them has already launched. In general, in 2012 the volume of production (in value terms) grew at the plant by about 250%.
In the adjacent slipway grows another corvette 20380, received at the tab name "Loud". Laid his April 20, 2012. Putting into operation of the warship provided in 2015.
Unfortunately, deadlines are "Perfect" moved from the originally planned. Building is not very smooth, and it's not in production, and finance. I understand that part of the funds received for orders immediately seized by creditors, and the enterprise is difficult to find the funds for the purchase of necessary materials and equipment.
Therefore, although the contract has been signed for a third corvette ( "Slap"), his fate may still be revised. Still possible to order and the fourth ship of the same project - "Strict".
Corvettes are designed to operate in the near sea area: combating surface ships, submarines and amphibious assault support.
It is assumed, just for all the navies of Russia 20 projects will be built corvettes 20380 and 20385. Currently accepted into operation three such ships, another launched; they built the plant "Severnaya Verf" in St. Petersburg. Four Corvette are now at different stages of readiness - from the initial cutting of metal ( "Agile") mounted to the superstructure (shown above the "perfect").
In the next with a "brand" stocks worth submarine, at first glance it looks like the body complete. Since the outset in an amicable asked the submarine did not shoot photos of her I do not have. But suppose that this diesel-electric subarina 877 ( "Halibut", aka "Warszawianka") rather than an unfinished missile nuclear submarine of project 971, which seems to be standing in the shop №19. At the completion of the latter, according to rumors, he has expressed interest in India, previously lessees of the same type of submarine "Nerpa". Meanwhile, previously, it was decided that the submarines in Komsomolsk will not produce more. Officially it reported that the reason for this was shallowing of the fairway of the Amur River, but this argument convinced few people. Much more confidence version is relatively competitive enterprises with the north-west of the country. The more so because not so long ago the Far East clearly indicated his place with the introduction of protective avtoposhlin. NEA also in the new system took place producer of surface ships (mainly low grade), well and submarines are supposed to only be repaired (what "beneaped" channel for some reason is no longer a barrier).
Security either wanted to show their vigilance, or simply weary, but sometimes even photographing migrant workers permitted to take pictures of the workshops led to persistent questions, they say, and why do you need such a picture, for what purpose you have made it ...
On the production it was not so very few women. As, however, and Kherson Shipyard.
During our visit to the shop, it seemed to me, living their normal lives, and scurrying journalists, camera crews and bloggers sometimes even prevented normal operation. If the visit of the governor in the shop and prepared, it is not conspicuous, although I am convinced that the preparation could not be. In any case, most of the workers went into a decent clothing, just once again shows the hard workers in some incredible zatrapeze. The visit of Vyacheslav Shport on ASP in the end did not take place - too significant was the shift in the schedule due to an engine failure on departure from Khabarovsk, also delayed a meeting closed to the media on the state defense order in the city administration.
Of course, I could not ignore the cat population management.
A cat, cats and kittens teen missing here. Here they are clearly not chase and fed.
Personally, I think that it helps to create a positive image of the company better than any poster.
When to shop on the inner rail line brought up some section for the construction of corvettes, and ended our visit to the factory - it was necessary to go further, to the assembly shop "Sukhoi Civil Aircraft" (SCAC). Fortunately, there were taken through the canteen KnAAZa, which by this time already fairly starving members of the delegation (especially Khabarovsk) were extremely pleased. However, GSS and SSJ-100, I will show in the next part of the album.