Philosophical heritage of Fyodor Dostoyevsky
"Read Dostoevsky, like Dostoyevsky - if you can and can not scold Dostoevsky, but read ... if possible only him."
134 years ago there was Fyodor Dostoevsky - one of the most significant and well-known Russian writers in the world. A brilliant representative of the literary style created by the urban middle class in the conditions of the destruction of the caste feudal system and the birth of capitalism, was remembered by many as a great thinker. Leaving a whole philosophical heritage, imeeno he described "the suffering of the little man" as a social tragedy and held a psychological analysis of the divided consciousness with profound psychological and tragedy.
Creation of this remarkable man has left an indelible mark on the lives of each and had a powerful influence on the Russian and world literature. His works will never go out of fashion because its themes are eternal, like Dostoevsky himself. The fate of the Russian genius - read on.
Born in Moscow in a family of head physician of the Mariinsky Hospital Fyodor October 30, 1821 for the poor and was the second of eight children of the family. Paternal writer came from a noble family of Dostoevsky, leading its origin already since 1506. Despite this, "my father and mother were not rich people and the workers." However this did not prevent the future writer to get an excellent education in a private hostel L. Cermak - one of the best in Moscow.
The love of literature Dostoevsky imparted mother magazine "Library for Reading", which is discharged regularly given the opportunity to get acquainted with the latest foreign literature. Of Russian authors loved Karamzin, Zhukovsky, Pushkin. With the age of the mother of small children and introduced the gospel, which would become almost the main book in the writer's life.
In 1837 Dostoevsky's mother dies and his father's decision, he entered the St. Petersburg Military Engineering College. Such a life was given to him with difficulty - already Fyodor wanted to connect his life with the literature, but the will of his father, he did not dare to disobey (he believed that the work of the writer will not be able to ensure the future of his son).
In 1839, his father died suddenly. This news shocked Dostoevsky and provoked heavy attack of nerves - a harbinger of future epilepsy, to which he had a genetic predisposition. Moreover, he even agreed with his brother to impose a taboo on the subject.
A Study in School burden to the young man. All free time he devoted to reading and writing at night (as far back as 1838 with sovimi comrades he creates a literary circle). At the end of his school enroll as a field engineer, lieutenant, but a year later he resigns and decides to devote himself to literature.
The first of Dostoevsky's novel "Poor People" was written in 1845 and published by Nekrasov in "Petersburg Collection". Belinsky proclaimed "... the appearance of extraordinary talent ...". Everyone was talking about the new Gogol.
However, the following product ( "Double") was met with incomprehension. Belinsky changed his favorable attitude towards the aspiring writer noting prolixity of the narration of his genius wrote sarcastically.
Loud fame allowed Dostoyevsky to expand the circle of friends, and it continues to be published. With the end of winter 1846 Dostoevsky becomes a participant in the literary circle Beketov. Later he would write: "good friends Beketovs cured me with his society." During this period, leave the "White Nights" and "Netochka Nezvanova", which displays features of Dostoevsky's realism makes it stand out from among the writers: depth psychology, exceptional character and situations.
But the successful beginning of literary activity was tragically cut short. In the fall of 1848, Dostoevsky became a member of a secret society Petrashevsky, the purpose of which was the creation of an illegal printing press and the implementation of a coup in Russia. In the circle SF Durov Dostoevsky repeatedly read forbidden "Belinsky's letter to Gogol." Soon among many Petrashevists he was arrested and sentenced to death, later commuted followed by 4 years of hard labor and exile in Siberia.
years of physical and mental torment Dostoevsky heightened sensitivity to human suffering, exacerbate tensions quest for social justice, against the background of which are born novel "Crime and Punishment", "The Idiot", "Demons", "Teenager" and "The Brothers Karamazov"
After the death of his brother, Dostoevsky takes responsibility for the debt, "Epoch" (edition of his brother) and experiencing financial difficulties, agrees to the onerous terms of the contract for the publication of the collected works of the publisher, which required of writing novels in an extremely short period of time. To speed up this process Fyodor takes care stenographer Anna Snitkin, who later became his close friend and his wife. Anna gave birth to two children Dostoevsky.
Since 1873 the writer became managing editor of the magazine "Citizen", which comes out on the pages of "Diary of a Writer", which is at the time a teacher of life for thousands of Russian people. At the end of May 1881 Dostoevsky speaks brilliant speech in honor of the opening of the monument to Pushkin favorite, and less than a year, February 9, 1881 the great writer's life stopped forever.
Dostoevsky about life
Remember my covenant never invent or plot or intrigue. Take that gives life itself. Life is far richer than all our fancies! No imagination does not come up to you that sometimes gives the most ordinary, unremarkable life, respect life!
We must love life more than the meaning of life.
It may be that all a purpose on earth, to which humanity aspires only and is only one continuous process to achieve, in other words, life itself ...
Happiness can not buy happiness, but only in achieving it.
The devil is struggling with God, and the field of battle - the hearts of men.
The idea of immortality - this is life itself, living a life of its final formula and the main source of truth and right consciousness for humanity.
Love is so omnipotent that regenerates and ourselves.
In a truly loving heart or jealousy kills love, love kills or jealousy.
Falling in love does not mean to fall in love ... love is possible and hating.
No one takes the first step, because everyone thinks that it is not mutual.
Beauty will save the world.
Dostoevsky on Russian
For this Russian Europe and the destiny of all of the great Aryan tribe in the same way as Russia itself, as well as the inheritance of his native land.
We, Russian, two country - our Europe and Russia.
The owner of the Russian land - there is only one Russian (Great Russians, malorus, Belorussian - it is all one) - and it will be forever.
Separation, "apostasy" from his country leads to hate these people hate Russia, so to speak, naturally, physically: for the climate, for the field, the forest, of the order, for the liberation of man, of Russian history, in a word, for everything for all the hate. Their suffering Russian people like to enjoy.
Only mastered in the possibility of perfection original material, that is the native language, we will be able to also perfectly possible to learn a language and a foreign language, but not before.
Dostoevsky about a person
I'm trembling creature or the right have?
Without the rudiments of positive and beautiful you can not leave a person in the life of childhood, without the rudiments of positive and beautiful should not be allowed in the path generation.
People, people - the most important thing. People even more money.
Limited no ordinary man, for example, nothing is easier than to imagine himself a man of unusual and original and will delight those without any hesitation.
Knowledge does not regenerate person; it only changes it, but change is not one universal, state form, and according to nature of the man.
A laugh that person gives himself completely, and you suddenly you recognize him the whole story.
The measure of people is not what it is, and what he considers beautiful and true.