7 Russian Mars missions
August 20, 1975, NASA launched the Mars Viking 1 unit. The space race between the two superpowers continued. Our Martian mission brought significant results. 7 Recall the Russian Mars missions.
The first succeeding Soviet Mars mission was sent to the "red planet" automatic interplanetary station, the third generation of the Mars-2. Mars-2 was designed to study Mars both in its orbit, as well as directly from the surface of the planet. AMC consisted of the space station (satellite for studies of Mars) and the lander. Navigation in space was carried out by means of orientation to the sun, the star Canopus and the Earth. Soviet Union planned to carry out serious research on Mars, for this AMC were all necessary equipment: infrared photometer for the study of the surface relief by measuring the amount of carbon dioxide, ultraviolet photometer to determine the density of the upper atmosphere density. Counter cosmic ray and many other devices. The lander was also automated and set to work offline and control.
The station was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome May 19, 1971. Station flight to Mars lasted more than 6 months. The flight was carried out under the program and. as they say, there were no signs of trouble, only at the last stage (the most important, we have to admit), due to incorrect calculations, the descent module entered the atmosphere at an angle greater than the specified, the parachute system was in such conditions be ineffective, and passing through the Martian atmosphere, machine crashed. To the credit of our country, our lander, though crashed, yet became the first man-made object in the world. The space station is more than eight months, carried out comprehensive studies of Mars, having made while working 362 orbits around the planet.
2. The MARS-3
Next Russian Mars mission was more successful. In developing the program of Mars-3 were taken into account the shortcomings of the previous run. Launched 9 days after Mars-2, Mars-station 3 successfully reached after six months of Mars orbit.
The lander for the first time in history made a soft landing on the surface of the "Red Planet." After fifteen minutes of the preparatory period, the machine has started to work and started broadcast panorama surrounding surface, but after 14 seconds and a half "Mars show" ended. "Show" is, of course may be called a stretch: AMS gave only the first 79 rows phototelevision signal consists of a gray background with no single piece, and the same happened with translation from the second telephotometer.
Assumed a different version of the incorrect operation of the devices: a corona discharge in the transmitter antennas, damage the battery ... but the final decision on the causes of the failure was not accepted. No way, Martians something namudrili.
July 21, 1973 from the Baikonur Bakonur launched AMC-4 Mars. Through 204 days after the launch, February 10, 1974 the spacecraft flying at a distance of 1844 km from the surface of Mars. For 27 minutes before that time it was included single-opto-mechanical scanners - telephotometers through which held shooting panoramas Mars two surface regions (in the orange-red and infrared). For the first time in the practice of Russian cosmonautics have participated in the flight four spacecraft.
Mars-4 was assigned many tasks: study of the distribution of water vapor across the disk of the planet, the determination of the gas composition and density of the atmosphere, measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons on the route of flight and the planet, the research spectrum of the natural glow of the atmosphere of Mars and many others. The main task of the Mars-4 was to get in touch with the automatic stations on the surface of Mars. Spacecraft "Mars-4" spent photographing Mars flight trajectory. The photographs the surface of the planet, has a very high quality, it is possible to discern the details of up to 100 m. This puts the number of pictures in the basic means of studying the planet. With his help using the color filter by synthesizing the color images obtained by a series of negatives portions Mars. Color pictures also are of high quality and are suitable for the areola and morphological and photometric studies. Unfortunately, all of the tasks Mars-4 is not performed.
4. The MARS-5
The launch of AMC-5 Mars was carried out four days after the launch of the Mars-4. The tasks set before them is not much different from the previous mission. Station "Mars-5" has successfully entered into orbit around the planet, but as soon as there was a depressurization of the instrument compartment, resulting in a work station lasted only about two weeks. Scientific instruments placed at the station "Mars-5", intended mainly to study some of the most important characteristics of the planet's surface and near-the-space orbit. The device was equipped with Lyman-alpha photometer constructed together Soviet and French scientists and intended for search of hydrogen in the upper layers of the atmosphere of Mars.
Installed on board the magnetometer measurements produced planet's magnetic field. For measuring the surface temperature of the infrared radiometer intended working in the range of 8-40 microns. Artificial satellite of Mars spacecraft "Mars-5" transmitted to Earth, new information about the planet and the space around it; with the orbit of the satellite received quality photographs of the Martian surface, including color. Insights into the magnetic field space near-Mars conducted apparatus, confirmed the conclusion drawn based on similar studies KA "Mars-2, -3 ', that exist near the planet's magnetic field of about 30 gammas (7-10 times greater than the unperturbed interplanetary field carried by the solar wind). It was assumed that this magnetic field belongs to the planet itself, and "Mars-5" has helped to obtain additional arguments in favor of this hypothesis. For similar measurements on board the spacecraft "Mars 5" for the first time directly measured temperature of the hydrogen atoms in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Preliminary data has shown that the temperature is close to 350 ° K. Despite the fact that the work of the station was short-lived, for the time of its operation have been received numerous reports about Mars, its atmosphere and magnetic field.
Another our lander was on Mars due to AMC Mars 6, launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome August 5, 1973. Sadly, this time a soft landing did not happen. During the descent there was a digital information device MX 6408M, but with the help of devices, "Bison", IT and ID information was received about the overloads, temperature and pressure changes. Just before boarding the connection with SA lost. The latter received him with telemetry confirmed the issuance of commands to turn a soft landing engine. The reappearance of the signal expected after 143 seconds after the failure, however this did not happen, but the data obtained during the descent, has brought significant results and made a great contribution to the study of Mars.
Lander Mars-6 landed on the planet Earth first transferring parameter data Mars atmosphere obtained during reduction. Mars 6 measured the chemical composition of the Mars atmosphere using a mass spectrometer radio frequency type. Shortly after the opening of the main parachute load analyzer opening mechanism, and the Martian atmosphere has access to the device. Preliminary analysis suggests that the argon content in the atmosphere of the planet may be around one third. This result is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the evolution of Mars atmosphere. On the descent apparatus as implemented pressure and ambient temperature; These measurements are important for the expansion of knowledge about the world, and to identify the conditions under which future work should Martian station. Together with French scientists also configured Radioastronomical experiment - solar radio measurement in the meter range. Receiving radiation both on Earth and on board the spacecraft, remote from our planet hundreds of millions of kilometers, can restore three-dimensional picture of the generation of radio waves and receive data streams of charged particles responsible for these processes. In this experiment, it solved another problem - search for short-term bursts of radio waves that can is supposed to occur in deep space due to explosive phenomena in the nuclei of galaxies, supernovae stars and other processes.
6. Mars 7
Mars 7 was launched on 9 August 1973. This Mars mission failed. Spuskaemy passed apparatus 1400 kilometers from the surface of Mars and left in space. Thus, the target program Mars-7 was not formed, but performing autonomous flight, lander maintained operability and transmit information to the apparatus on radio links span CD-1 and PT-1.
With untrapped apparatus Mars-7 communication was maintained until 25 March 1974. When the Mars-7 in September-November 1973, fixed the link between the increase in the proton flux and solar wind velocity. Pretreatment data spacecraft Mars 7 of the radiation intensity in the resonance lines of atomic hydrogen Lyman alpha possible to estimate this profile line in interplanetary space and define therein two components, each of which contributes approximately equally to the total radiation intensity.
The received information will allow to calculate the velocity, temperature and density of flowing into the interstellar solar hydrogen system, and to distinguish the contribution galactic radiation Lyman-alpha line. This experiment was carried out in collaboration with French scientists.
7. The project "Phobos"
The "Phobos" was the next stage in the study of Mars and its satellite. It was started in the wake of the successful cooperation with foreign research organizations in the framework of the AMC "Vega". Despite the fact that the main objective of the project has remained unfulfilled, and planned delivery on the Martian moon landers, the project has brought results. The exploration of Mars, Phobos and the near-Mars space made within 57 days at the stage of orbital motion around Mars, have provided unique scientific results of the thermal characteristics of Phobos, the plasma environment of Mars, its interaction with the solar wind. For example, the magnitude of the flow of oxygen ions leaving Mars atmosphere detected by means of ion spectrometer, mounted on a spacecraft Phobos 2, succeeded to evaluate the erosion rate Mars atmosphere caused by interaction with the solar wind. In this study of the Soviet program of Mars over. Starting the next, already Russian, apparatus for the study of Mars - the station "Mars-96" in 1996 - ended in failure.
Starting the next Russian spacecraft to study Mars and its moons (Phobos-Grunt) was held on 9 November 2011. The main objective of this unit - delivery of Phobos soil sample to Earth. On the day the device went into a basic orbit, but for some reason the command to include the cruise propulsion system failed. November 24 were officially stopped trying to recover, and in February 2012 the unit went out of control in the dense layers of the atmosphere, and fell into the ocean.