7 unresolved ethical challenges of the future
While the science is moving forward by leaps and bounds, and the most fantastic technological ideas are gradually becoming a reality, many related complex ethical questions are still unanswered.
1. Whether the person is permissible to clone yourself?
At the present time there is a moratorium on human cloning, but it is unlikely it will go on forever. Opponents consider this idea as an insult to human dignity, consider it a manifestation of the highest degree of selfishness and worried that the clones will be used for personal gain.
Supporters of cloning believe that moral problems can be solved by recognizing the right clones. One of the most popular argument is that the clones - is, in fact, appeared at different times of the twins. In addition, supporters believe that cloning could become a new form of human reproduction, which can help, for example, have children to same-sex couples.
2. Is it permissible to improve the human genome with the help of non-human DNA?
This branch of science is called "transgenes" - a mixture of human and non-human genetic information. Scientists have long been gradually introduced into the human DNA in laboratory animals, but the opposite experience is not carried out - virtually anywhere they are considered illegal. Opponents fear that such experiments might produce chimeras - half people and half-animal. Supporters insist that they can be very useful for the development of new treatments. For example, some animals have natural immunity with respect to certain diseases. Do we not want to give yourself the same immunity? In addition, the animals have a lot of qualities that a person can only envy. If we may borrow the excellent vision in birds or hearing dogs, we become less of it people?
3. Is it acceptable for parents to "modeled" their children?
As is the case with cloning, the idea of genetically modifying human offspring is still banned. Theoretically, this method allows parents to choose the desired traits of their offspring, including non-medical features such as hair and eye color, height, mental ability, sexual orientation, type of personality - in short everything that depends on genetics.
Opponents of this idea of fear that could start a kind of "arms race", when parents will go on the road "improvements" of their children farther, just so as not to lose face in front of the neighbors. Perhaps there are those "originals" who want to reward your children with something out of the ordinary - a huge growth, for example, or even the tail.
Well, proponents believe that the selection of a future child's traits will bring only benefits, because the parents will be able to maximize the potential of their children.
4. What research should be considered as the most important?
Our civilization is forced to deal with a number of serious problems - from hurricanes to epidemics and apocalyptic threats. In this connection the question arises: should be funded primarily what research? Someone convinced that nothing is more important than the study of global warming. Others believe that there is nothing more dangerous than the threat of global pandemics such as avian flu, and so on. D.
The third seems that prime importance should be given to the development of new technologies that, in future, could significantly change the life on the planet: 3D-printing, molecular nanotechnology, the creation of artificial intelligence, and so forth..
5. Whether to limit the length of a person's life, when immortality becomes a reality?
The day will come when the problem of biological aging will finally be resolved. When this happens, immediately will inevitably arise a number of other serious problems.: Overpopulation, gerontocracy growth, decrease the value of human life ... In this regard, the political scientist Francis Fukuyama, who was a member of Council on Bioethics in the administration of George W. Bush, suggested that the government should will receive the right to determine the life of its citizens.
In a world where everyone will be able to live forever, respect for human rights will become very problematic, including the right to health care, the right to life, the right to self-determination, and so on. D.
6. Should provide guaranteed benefits package to all people?
in the global economy could be plunged into a crisis the likes of which has not happened over the next two decades. Once the robots will replace people in manufacturing, where many human functions will perform the artificial intelligence, the unemployment rate will soar to unprecedented heights above. This was inevitably the question arises of ensuring the remaining unemployed people with social guarantees, which would enable them tolerably exist. Of course, this idea is not all have to taste. A portion of the population dependent on government grants, will inevitably be abused by the system.
7. What animals should be given the rights as having consciousness?
an international group of scientists last year signed a so-called "Cambridge Declaration of the mind." This document stated that many animals have consciousness and they should be given rights. The list of animals included mammals, birds, and even octopuses.
More than that, studies have shown that insects and show some cognitive ability. In this connection there is the issue of recognizing the rights of these animals and whether we need to take responsibility for their well-being.