Wolf's Lair - Führer Headquarters
• Wolf's Lair - Führer Headquarters
Wolf's Lair, Wolfsschanze (German Wolfsschanze.) - the main rate of the Fuhrer and the command set of the High Command of the German armed forces.
Hitler spent here more than 800 days. It was from here he directed the attack on the Soviet Union and the fighting on the Eastern Front. July 20, 1944 there was an unsuccessful attempt on Hitler (which was filmed after "Valkyrie" with Tom Cruise).
Hitler's headquarters is located in a forest in Gierłoż 8 km from Kętrzyn. Construction has commenced in the spring of 1940. On all maps and plans of the object displayed as Chemische Werke Askania (Askania Chemical Works). Engaged in the construction of the organization Todt. Built about 2-3 thousands of workers.
There have been three main periods in the construction of: 1940-41, 1942-43, and the last - spring, winter, and early autumn 1944 schedule of works was designed to strengthen the Führer bunker and other powerful bunkers.
Wolfsschanze was the largest of Hitler's headquarters, and almost was a real city. Was constructed over eighty hoppers and reinforced buildings middle dense forest, located in a protected area of 250 hectares and surrounded by several rings of barbed wire, minefields, observation towers, and antiaircraft machine gun positions. Width minefields was 50-350 m. Almost to 1956 g. operation lasted demining. about 54,000 mines and about 200,000 munitions were found. To protect against detection of air used layouts trees and scrim. Its changed 4 times per year, in accordance with the environment, thus, there was no difference between the objects and the environment. The walls of many bunkers were lined with seaweed, and then painted in green or gray. The entire area was photographed from the air in order to check the masking. Access to the was possible only through the three guard posts.
In 1944, about 2,000 people served Wolf's Lair - 300 field marshals, generals and aides; 1200 soldiers of the battalion of Hitler's escort; 150 exploration services and protection of the SS; 300 administration workers, drivers, electricians, mechanics, stenographers and clerks, waiters, hairdressers and so on. D. For the first time Hitler came here June 24, 1941 after the attack on the Soviet Union.
The evacuation of the German command of Wolfsschanze came suddenly, when the Red Army already coming right up close too. January 24, 1945, just before the arrival of Soviet troops (27 January 1945), Field Marshal Keitel ordered the destruction of Wolfsschanze, so that they could no longer take advantage of anyone.
There was not a deliberate attempt to destroy Wolf's Lair, although its existence and exact location was known to US intelligence as early as October 1942.
Plan the whole territory of Wolf's Lair. We are located in the central part:
The plan of the central part:
The only completely preserved object. It was used by the SS escort. Here now a restaurant and hotel. Here we spent the night and had breakfast before heading out to see all of what goes on it:
SS intelligence service and former barracks:
Summer bunker light type. There are mainly held conferences and meetings. July 20, 1944, arrived here, Colonel Stauffenberg. In the suitcase he had brought a bomb activated by chemical explosives. The bomb exploded as planned, but instead of Hitler killed four other people:
Stauffenberg had direct access to Hitler's headquarters, by raising to the rank of colonel and commander of the appointment of staff of the reserve army. July 20, 1944, Stauffenberg, using forceps, broken ampoule containing acid, for setting a timer on the bomb, and put it into his bag. He did not have time to activate the second bomb as he was interrupted by the announcement of the beginning of the meeting with Hitler. Only one of the two prepared explosives was activated and the second remained in the portfolio of Assistant - Hefti. Stauffenberg was 300 meters to the barracks, where all the meetings were held, put his briefcase near Hitler, right around table legs and went under the pretext of a telephone conversation.
Between 12:45 and 12:55 the bomb exploded. Four people were fatally injured, while others suffered. Hitler himself received a slight wound. Stauffenberg and his assistant had to leave the Wolf's Lair in the staff car.
plot uncovered at night. Stauffenberg and the deputy commander of the reserve army, General Olbricht and Colonel Mertz von Kvirnhaim were shot. Hitler immediately convened a special committee, known as the Sonderkommando, to clarify the circumstances and all those involved in the assassination. As a result, about 5,000 people were arrested, many of them were severely tortured and then shot or hung with special cruelty, and the rest were killed in concentration camps, or committed suicide. Details about the attempt, I did not write, are interested can watch the film "Valkyrie"
A memorial plaque was installed over 48 years since the assassination. Three sons Stauffenberg attended the opening ceremony.
It is written here:
On this site stood the hut, where on July 20 1944Claus Schenk Earl von Staufenberg has made an attempt to assassinate Hitler. He and many others who fought against Hitler's dictatorship, gave their lives for this attempt:
Monument sappers who were killed in mine areas:
A huge guest bunker. Its length - 45 meters, width - 27 meters; roof -. 6, 5 m in all this pile of concrete were only two rooms with an area of 85 square meters. meters, and the rest - the walls, roofs and corridors:
None of the interior is not left bunker was blown up from the inside. Pay attention to the thickness of the ceiling:
Most of the bunkers have double walls and ceilings.
At each bunker heavy type installed flak towers. Throughout the territory of birdhouses on trees for bats:
On the right the former guest room:
The former post office:
stenographers office - almost 45 meters in length:
This huge bunker used as a protection for the sauna, underground storage products and other nearby facilities:
Inside the dark and 5 yards littered all:
Otstatki from Bunker Keitel - Chief of Staff of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces of Germany. Caring Visitors do not give fall multi-ton wall and con rods:
Ahead is seen Hitler's bunker:
Hitler's Bunker - the largest object in the area. The area of its outer surface - 2480 sq. m. In 1944 it was rebuilt and fortified. The bunker was six inputs and all with one hand:
The dining room was added next to the main hopper:
Inside everything has been destroyed by the explosion. The thickness of the roof - 8, 5 m:
Bunker Göring - Reich Reich Ministry of Aviation:
He had three tower defense:
He is the least affected by the explosion:
One of the two 80-meter room:
It was located and telegraph communications department: