11, the most technologically advanced buildings in the world
What innovations are coming up with earth the architects to make buildings safer, "smart" and technologically advanced? Before you 11 interesting examples.
Moving tower Al Bahar (Aedas Architects, Abu Dhabi 2012)
In recent years, the center of high-rise construction is Asia, and in Europe and the US rate is not so much the height of the buildings, but on their adaptability and efficiency - all the more surprising tower Al Bahar in Abu Dhabi. Two 29-storey high-rise buildings, using motifs of traditional architecture, deny the very term "real estate". After all, their facades move.
In order to protect the interior from the 50-degree heat, engineers have come up with to put on top of the facade of the veil of golden cells that open and close depending on the light. The degree of opening-hundred shells determined by the computer, from fully open to fully closed in the morning to noon.
However, this is not the only example of energy-efficient use of traditional motifs of Arab architecture. One of the renowned French architect Jean Nouvel for the design of the office building Agbar in Barcelona (2004) and the tower in Doha (2012) used a similar technique. Nouvel facades reminiscent of the veil draped over the tower. The usual windows, or not visible at all, or they are scattered randomly and solar sensors regulate transparency, saving on air-conditioning of offices.
HSBC Bank (Norman Foster, Hong Kong, 1986): in the form of hangers skyscraper
In 1986, with its slogan of "building - a technology," Norman Foster perepridumal skyscraper. High-rise buildings, in spite of its majestic appearance, had several critical issues: they were too large for easy movement, they almost always was close and it was difficult to upgrade. Norman Foster elegantly solved all these problems. Hong Kong skyscraper height of 47 floors designed for almost five years, but it was built in a record two years building elements were prefabricated in factories in Britain, Japan and the US, and then assembled on site. Virtually all premises, assembled from lightweight construction, hanging on the frame as the hanger - it facilitates the internal reorganization and modernization. Inside buildings Foster made several ten-story atrium. Thus improved internal circulation of air, resulting in savings on a complex ventilation system. And the main means of communication are not elevators inside skyscraper steel (of 28 pieces), and the system of the 62 escalators linking levels within the atria.
By the way, at the same time in London, Richard Rogers, one of the Center Pompidou in Paris authors solved similar problems. The 14-storey office building Lloyd's he like in Paris, has made maximum use of the interior space by removing the building inside: outside facade were elevators, stairs, pipes. And the inner atrium with natural lighting will save on lighting. A quarter-century, both buildings have become classics of high-tech - and architects began to develop the technology further.
The Olympic Aquatic Center (Zaha Hadid, London, 2011): A Model for disassembly
If a building by Norman Foster and Richard Rogers designed with future internal modernization, the Olympic Aquatic Center is designed so that it can be completely rebuilt. Built design is one of the main architects of the planet-deconstructivists Zaha Hadid invented back in 2004. Water stadium for 2500 spectators with three pools varying depth was supposed to resemble a futuristic iron.
The Olympic Games in London has made adjustments to the project. Aquatic Center received additional collapsible bleachers-wings for 15 000 spectators and an innovative television system to broadcast the event. Despite the futuristic design, the basic structure of the building were made of pre-prepared in the factory of reinforced concrete parts, which allowed him to collect as a designer for a year before the competition. Currently the building is rebuilt: it will lose a large crowd and the central part, and the extracted elements to be reused. Updated pool will open in 2014.
The mansion ZCB (Ronald Lu, Hong Kong, 2012): electricity from waste
Every year there is a huge number of "smart" mansions and "green" buildings. ZCB (Zero Carbon Building, which can be translated as the "building with zero emissions of carbon dioxide") combines all of their properties. New mansion Ronald Lou in Hong Kong - the building manifest.
ZCB frame is made from recycled materials. In a small mansion east and west facades and covered with solar panels fully asymmetrical roof protects the building from the south and allows him to "samozatenyatsya". North facade opened predominant wind direction, which allows the use of natural ventilation. Such an orientation and layout in conjunction with the smart climate control system can save up to 45% energy.
If solar energy is not enough, you can use biodiesel. In theory, for the year house must produce more energy than it uses - the surplus will go into the grid of the city and gradually compensate for the amount of carbon dioxide that was emitted during the construction.
30 St Mary Axe (Norman Foster, London, 2004): the tower, which protects the air
When creating your "London cucumber", Norman Foster first tried to make the new building effective. He was able to reduce energy consumption by half. The shape of the building is due to the retina of the triangles. This design allows the 41-storey skyscraper be simultaneously a graceful and sufficiently stable. And it saves interior space, and a cunning organization which makes the building energy efficient. In terms of each floor skyscraper resembles a flower with six petals - atriums that Foster applied in Hong Kong, then taken out to the front and turned into heat pipes, which allow air to circulate between the floors. On the one hand, it is again possible to elegantly solve the problem of ventilation of a skyscraper. Alternatively, the air in these spaces is a layer which prevents building very hot in summer and, on the contrary, it protects the winter without hindering natural light.
Two years later, Foster used a similar idea in the New York tower Hirst. Ceiling also has a structure in the form of the retina (this save up to 20% of steel in the construction) and is designed for a wide use of natural light. A thermostat as inside a building using a conventional rain water, which circulates through the heat pipes. As a result, the tower has received at least a quarter more energy efficient counterparts.
Library (Toyo Ito Sendai, 2001): a glass house that is not afraid of earthquakes
Paper books are in the past, and modern library should not be a repository and information hub - this issue has been of interest to many architects at the turn of the 2000s, but it is best to get it solved in the Japanese Toyo Ito. Designed by the architect building in Sendai not only develops the idea of the modern media, but literally woven of interesting technical solutions.
Library looks like a glass cube height of seven storeys. Part transparent fronts and passed daylight, the other part is coated with aluminum sheets, reflective excess heat. Layout of each floor is free and a little different from the rest. All the matter in the system of pipes, randomly scattered on the floors. On the one hand, they take the weight of construction and make it resistant against earthquakes. On the other hand, are concentrated in the pipes all communications within the building, including stairs and elevators. With the third - pipes operate the climate control function: thanks to the building it circulate air and water.
Office Sony City Osaki (Nikken Sekkei, Tokyo 2012) with air conditioning without electricity
The new office is one of Sony's units outside - not really remarkable high-rise office, which thousands. And at the same time it is one of the most unusual "green" buildings. On the southern facade built solar panels placed on the roof collect rain water, and the internal layout is arranged in such a way that employees suffer less from the heat of the day. But the main thing is different: the eastern facade of the building - a huge evaporator.
Sony office breaks down conventional ideas about how it should be arranged in the building, and for this purpose uses traditional elements to a new level. Along the eastern facade stretched porous clay pipes, which circulates the collected rainwater. Gradually it evaporates - this is built and conditioning effect. If you want to slow down the evaporation tube are closed blinds.
Unlike other climate systems, excess heat is not released outwardly. tube system requires no electricity and cools not only the building, but also the surrounding area. Sony office, like the open water, mitigates climate several quarters. And it is absolutely free.
Home Memu Meadows (Kengo Kuma, meme, 2012): wood and plastic bottles
In the modern green architecture oppose two approaches. The first - is to create smart homes with advanced technical solutions (the essence of this idea is the ZCB Ronald Lu). The second - the use of modern technologies and technical solutions in the construction of traditional buildings. An adept of this approach is the Japanese Kengo Kuma. In 2002, around Beijing, he built a real house of bamboo. But the plant stems poured concrete. Kengo Kuma's latest project - an experimental transparent house on the island of Hokkaido. Architect reproduced TISE, the traditional home of the islanders. Building skeleton made of larch, and used for the walls of the sandwich of Teflon, glass and insulation therebetween. Insulation - a product of processing of plastic bottles. construction of the wall does not only serve as a good heat and sound insulation, but also to pass daylight.
If the architect experiment ends in success, it "clones" building. Memu Meadows occupy a niche of cheap, simple, and very environmentally friendly housing.
The International Trade Center (Atkins, Manama, 2008): House-Power
The International Trade Center in Bahrain was the first major building with installed wind turbines. In 2008, during the completion of the two 50-story skyscraper hanged three of these turbines. The complex is located by the sea, where the wind blows constantly, and it is amplified between the skyscrapers. This allows tridtsatimetrovoy turbines produce about GWh year-hour of electricity, which covers a tenth of the needs of the building.
The idea to install turbines in homes seemed interesting, and other architects. Two years later appeared apartment building Strata SE1 in London and an office skyscraper Pearl River in Guangzhou. Both buildings use wind turbines as part of an overall strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions - in addition to water recycling, waste recycling and energy-saving technologies. However, this approach is not always good for the outside of the building mean: Strata SE1, nicknamed for the shape of the roof, "Razor", recently received the title of one of the ugliest buildings in Britain.
The Shard (London, Renzo Piano, 2012): Skyscraper against terrorists
Renzo Piano, the second author of the Pompidou Center in Paris, like Norman Foster is interested tech buildings. His brainchild, The Shard, opened just over a month ago, a major skyscraper in London, again reminiscent of New York built a couple of years ago, the Bank of America Tower and the New York Times (Piano another project). Not only the form - all three are similar to glass cliff - but also function.
Modern skyscraper should be a city within a city. It must be sustainable, self-sufficient, as a more efficient and cost effective as possible. Therefore, in a London high-rise have all the fancy technical solutions, except that wind farms and solar panels. Double façade with an air cushion heat-insulating building. Sensors monitor light and automatically change the amount of penetrating light. Rainwater is stored and used for the second climate control and other needs. The building alone recycles waste and generates a significant proportion of energy consumption. In addition, at the foot of the skyscraper is a real transport hub.
Asymmetrical shape and the fortified inner core make "Shard" very stable - theoretically skyscraper to withstand a collision with the airliner and almost any natural disaster. It seems that this building - the perfect answer to the question of what should be a skyscraper after 11 September. At least until the completion of the new World Trade Center in New York.
Pavilion "Garage" in Gorky Park (Shigeru Ban, Moscow, 2012): House of paper
Shigeru Ban - the same age as Kengo Kuma, who made a name for itself in the construction of paper impregnated with a special solution - it does not burn, does not gets wet and does not break. This solution, which uses the Awards for a quarter century, it was not just a whim of architect: in 1995, after the Kobe earthquake, it took a large number of temporary houses for people who lost shelter, and he developed a model project of a folding paper house. Paper is cheap, it is easy to produce, and from it you can quickly build a pretty convincing temporary structures. And when they are no longer needed, they can be simply recycled. These qualities become key while eliminating the effects of natural disasters or to provide temporary structures. The last of the paper building Shigeru Ban - appeared Pavilion "Garage" in Moscow's Gorky Park last fall.