11 newest areas of science
There was a time when science can be divided into extensive and relatively understandable disciplines - biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy. But today, every region is becoming more specialized and thus is closely related to other disciplines, which leads to the emergence of entirely new branches of science. We offer you a selection of 11 of the latest scientific trends, is actively developing in the 21st century.
If you know of Toxoplasma, mainly living in the feline, but able to dwell in other warm-blooded animals, including humans and rats, then you know about neyroparazitologii. The fact that these creepy pests now have their own scientific discipline that shows how they are distributed in nature.
Microparasites usually change the behavior of the media in accordance with the needs of their reproductive strategy. Often involved in the process and the third party. For example, Euhaplorchis californiensis causes the fish jump out of the water to marsh birds can catch them and eat. Hair worms live inside grasshoppers, and when it is time to leave their vehicles, they are produced in insect blood of a cocktail of chemicals, forcing grasshoppers to commit suicide by jumping into the water. A hair worms quietly float away from the dead "hosts".
2. Quantum Biology
Physicists have known for over a century of quantum effects, such as the ability of photons to disappear in one place and appear in another, or be in two places at once. However, the amazing properties of quantum mechanics are applicable not only in physics but also in biology.
The best example of quantum biology - photosynthesis: plants and some bacteria use the energy of sunlight to build molecules they need. It turns out that photosynthesis is actually based on a striking phenomenon - a small mass of energy "exploring" all possible avenues for self-application, and then "choose" the most effective. Perhaps navigation birds, DNA mutation and even our sense of smell one way or another based on quantum effects. Although this area of science is still very speculative, and controversial, scientists believe that once drawn from quantum biology ideas can lead to new medicines and biomimetic systems (biomimetrika - another new research field, where biological systems and structures are used to create new materials and devices ).
Along with ekzookeanografami and ekzogeologami, ekzometeorologi interested in the study of natural processes occurring on other planets. Now, thanks to powerful telescopes when it became possible to study the internal processes of the nearby planets and satellites, ekzometeorologi can monitor their atmospheric and weather conditions. Jupiter and Saturn with their incredible scale weather phenomena - the first candidates for research, as well as Mars, with regular dust storms.
Ekzometeorologi learn even a planet outside our solar system. And interestingly, they may eventually find signs of extraterrestrial life on extrasolar planets by detecting atmospheric trace organic or elevated levels of carbon dioxide - a sign of industrial civilization.
Nutrigenomics - the study of the complex relationship between food and the expression of the genome. Scientists working in this field, seeking to understand the role of genetic variations and dietary reactions to how exactly the nutrients affect gene.
Food really has a tremendous impact on health - and it all begins literally at the molecular level. Nutrigenomics works in both directions: studying exactly how our genome affects food preferences, and vice versa. The main goal of discipline is to create a personalized nutrition - it is necessary to ensure that our food is perfectly suited to our unique set of genes.
cliodynamics - a discipline that combines historical macrosociology, economic history (cliometrics), mathematical modeling of long-term social processes, as well as the systematization and analysis of historical data. The name comes from the Greek muse of history and poetry Clio. Simply put, cliodynamics - is an attempt to predict and describe the broad social communication history - and for the study of the past, and as a potential way to predict the future, for example, forecasts of social unrest.
6. Synthetic Biology
Synthetic biology - is the design and construction of new biological parts, devices and systems. It also includes the modernization of existing biological systems to an infinite number of useful applications.
Craig Venter, one of the leading experts in this field, said in the year 2008, he recreated the entire genome of the bacterium by bonding its chemical components. Two years later, his team has created a "synthetic life" - the DNA molecule by using a numeric code, and then print the 3D-printer, and embedded in a living bacterium.
In the future, biologists are going to analyze the different genome types to create useful organisms for introduction into the body and bio-robots that will be able to produce chemicals - energy products - from scratch. There is also an idea to create an artificial struggling with contamination by bacteria or a vaccine for the treatment of serious diseases. The potential of this scientific discipline just huge.
7. A recombinant memetics
This area of science is in its infancy, but it is already clear that it is only a matter of time - sooner or later, scientists will have a better understanding of the human noosphere (the aggregate of all known people to information) and how to disseminate information affects almost all aspects of human life .
Like recombinant DNA, where different genetic sequences coming together to create something new, recombinant memetics examines how memes - ideas that are transmitted from person to person - can be adjusted and combined with other memes and memepleksami - well-established set of interrelated memes. This can be useful in "socio-therapeutic" purposes, for example, to combat the spread of radical and extremist ideologies.
8. Computational sociology
As cliodynamics, computational sociology deals with the study of social phenomena and trends. The central place in this discipline takes the use of computers and related information processing technologies. Of course, this discipline has evolved only with the advent of computers and the omnipresence of the Internet.
Particular attention is paid in this discipline huge flow of information from our daily lives, for example, e-mails, phone calls, posts on social networks, shopping on a credit card inquiries in search engines and so on. Examples of work can serve as a study of the structure of social networks and how they are covered by the information, or the like on the Internet there are intimate relationships.
9. Cognitive economy
As a rule, the economy is not linked to the traditional disciplines, but that may change due to the close cooperation between all branches of science. This discipline is often confused with behavioral economics (the study of our behavior in the context of economic decision-making). Cognitive the economy - the science of how we think.
Lee Caldwell, author of a blog about this discipline, wrote about it:
"Cognitive (or financial) economy ... draws attention to what is really going on in a person's mind when he makes a choice. What is the internal structure of the decision, that it affects what kind of information at this point takes the mind and how it is treated, what the person's preferences and internal forms, ultimately, all these processes are reflected in the behavior? ".
In other words, the researchers begin their studies at a lower, simplified level, and form microscopic principles of decision-making for the development of large-scale models of economic behavior. Often, this scientific discipline interacts with adjacent areas, such as economics or computational cognitive science.
10. Plastic Electronics
Typically, the electronics associated with inert and inorganic conductors and semiconductors such as silicon and copper. But a new electronics industry uses conductive polymers and conductive small molecules, which are based on carbon. Organic electronics includes development, synthesis and processing of organic and inorganic functional materials, along with the development of advanced micro and nanotechnology.
In truth, this is not such a new branch of science, the first developments were made in the 1970s. However, to bring all the data together tried and tested turned out only recently, in particular, due to the nanotechnology revolution. Due to organic electronics, we may soon have organic solar cells, self-assembled monolayers in electronic devices and organic prosthesis, which in the future will be able to replace a person damaged limbs: in the future, the so-called cyborgs, quite possibly, will consist largely of organic than synthetic parts.
11. Computational biology
If you like the same mathematics and biology, this discipline is just for you. Computational biology seeks to understand biological processes through the language of mathematics. This is equally used for other numerical systems, e.g., physics and computer. Scientists from the University of Ottawa to explain how this was possible:
"With the development of Biological Instrumentation and to easy access to computing power, Biology itself has to operate an increasing number of data and speed of acquired knowledge while only increasing. Thus, the interpretation of data now requires a computational approach. At the same time, from the point of view of physics and mathematics, biology has grown to the point where the theoretical models of biological mechanisms can be tested experimentally. This led to the development of computational biology. " Scientists working in this field, analyze and measure everything from molecules and ending ecosystems.