many thousands of years this process. Perhaps even likely, man first learned to him, and then got hold of the fire.
I'm not talking about the process of reproduction, I'm talking about tanning. operates the largest tannery in Europe, in Russia - Ryazan, he is ZAO "Russian leather". Come for a visit.
The plant will soon be a hundred years old, it was opened a year before the October Revolution. He successfully processed skin of cattle in the Soviet era, and that is very rare, not stop their activities or in the 90s or later. In 1988, he was virtually rebuilt Italian comrades, and modernization of the equipment takes place constantly. Now the production area in Ryazan is 480,000 square meters, employs over two thousand people. Chinese subsidiary was opened in 2006. It is much smaller and mainly specializes in shoe leather.
Almost half the production of its products exported to Italy, Portugal, Spain, France and Asia. I will not show the very first stage of production. It happens acceptance saline in leather barrels, their primary sorting and soaking in the soaking-ash drums. 21 branch receives raw skin with virtually all major Russian meat processing facilities. This is about 5200 tons per month.
After steeping (soaking) devoid of hair skin cover fall on the first conveyor. Here with them especially not stand on ceremony and ship fearsome machines.
As I understand, this unit removes water. At the output of every four workers inspect the skin and cut a clear marriage, and the remnants of tissue and fat.
In the early stages of the hardest work. The skins are very slippery, sharp knives and you have no idea what's worth smell. 6000 per day processed hides.
Next to skin comes one of the most critical processes. These drums tanning occurs. During this process, with the help of special chemicals from the skin appear all microorganisms, natural processes are terminated. E. From a living skin material is converted to a standard corresponding to the strict requirements semifinished product.
The skin at this stage is called a wet-blue and after the chemical treatment is really chrome blue. Skin tanned by old prescriptions, using organic tanning agents, can also be distinguished by color. It is either white or yellow-brown.
together with wet-blue move into the finishing shop.
So, pulled out and dried wet-blue fall on the table to these women. It is they who are responsible for sorting and rejection at this stage.
The material passes slitting process. With planing machine skin stratified into two or even three layers. It turns out front and splits.
From the front of the produce the highest quality leather, but also make the skin splits cheaper. Most chips are used for the preparation of adhesives and technical gelatin.
Some customers prefer not to mess with the primary processing of leather, and produce at a later stage independent process and buy the plant products under wet-blue. It is an international standard, so that this decision is nothing strange.
Further, blue skin gets in dyeing and zhirovalnye drums.
They are exactly the same as for tanning, but other processes taking place in them. At this stage, given by the most important features of a future skin softness, durability, elasticity. Immediately there is painting. As you know, the final product options are vast. The plant produces products under the order, so that the fate of each piece of material is predetermined in advance.
These drums are used by many generations of tanners. Traditionally made of hardwood.
If you look inside, in the dark, you can see perfectly polished wall and studs for additional mixing leather.
processed and dyed crust leather called. It can be of different colors, with different properties.
The drying process may be different, but most often begins with the extraction. Remember the ancient barrel washing machines with rubber rollers for pressing? This is a larger version.
A piece of glamor for a change
This atmospheric drying. Sneak make a large circle on the ceiling management fro vicinity, at the same time and dried.
And this is another kind of drying - frame. In this position, four workers take the frame, remove the dried steal, and pull new. A substitution takes about three minutes.
frames go around. Behind the wall is a dryer, where the drying takes place. I understand that this method is used for drying expensive and furniture leathers. By the way, there can be clearly seen that the standard size of the crust - exactly half of the skins. Furniture of the skin most often integers.
the next item of quality control. Although production and mechanized / automated by 90%, but the human experience can not be replaced. Experienced controller for a few seconds determines the density, thickness and quality of the skin. Plus laboratory and coloristic control sample copies of each party.
was transferred to a finishing shop №2. Here comes the final processing and finished products. Again, some customers buy their own crust and brought it to mind, the remaining crust is subjected to finishing operations.
If at the stage of crust options set, then there is more of them. I even have no idea about how many types of skin can be obtained on these lines. During the finishing gloss set, complementary colors, embossing, texture, and other special effects. Here crust is processed by spraying. In a long assembly line piece of leather goes through several stages of soaking and drying.
And here is another principle that resembles lamination or printing press. The skin goes through a huge coloring and drying machine at the same time.
After all the twists and turns of the skin is almost no texture. This machine consists of, roughly speaking, the iron and press.
On a hot plate coated volumetric figure, which under pressure is transferred to the skin.
This skin is likely to run for the manufacture of protective clothing and footwear.
And then, finally, finished leather gets to the warehouse of finished products.
There is a final quality control, formed the party. The skin should not be folded envelope, so she rolled up a few pieces.
The travel time of all stages of production is highly dependent on the complexity of manufacture.
Production of furniture leather and runs parallel to the steps already practically repeats what he saw.
After drying the skin receives a frame on kunturirovanie. Two women with pnevmonozhami very smartly cut skin edges. See what they are doing, I was able to in the third or fourth call.
Also, there is the final impregnation of any substance. Leather furniture thicker and must have a very high strength and wear resistant characteristics.
So the final quality control and sorting. By the way, when the factory operates its own factory for the production of leather furniture, so completely exclusive options are available.
Of course, it was impossible to leave without visiting the holy of holies - the lab. By the way, 500 thousand square meters - this is really a lot, workers move on bicycles.
In the laboratory, not only produced quality control, but also the development of new processing technologies, new chemical compounds are tested. Also for exclusive orders immediately made small batches of skins with a few recipes for processing.
In a small laboratory shop can play any stage of the process. The only thing that I have not found, so is the press for stamping.
There are also drums, but several times less.
Drains and paint developed immediately.
Specially was donated to me a large piece of skin for the selection of a new color. Typically, a piece of painted four times less. I was asked to mention it :)
Finally I was led into the showroom of the factory. Customer show it was his. Several dozen types of leather with a lot of stamping options, color and density. From the usual "leather" skin with natural texture, to something acidic, the touch and the cut is more reminiscent of linoleum, from a thick belt to the finest glove.
Since childhood, I was very interested in the question of whether it is possible in times of trouble to cook soup of shoes or a bite belt. Now I can say with confidence - it is possible, but pointless and dangerous for health.
After soaking in chemistry or limestone, tanning chrome or tannin, the nutritional properties of the skin is rapidly approaching zero. And generally talk about "natural natural material" may be a stretch. So if you are thinking of a difficult hike, stock up on things rawhide - theirs is possible.