How not to save people
Most first aid - 10 dangerous delusions. No matter when and where they come from, but almost every one of us has some knowledge of first aid. Alas, in most cases, this knowledge is a mess of stereotypes and rumors, and the use of this cereal in practice, not just useless, but also dangerous.
For example, everyone knows that it is necessary to splint a fracture. And most imagine this bus as two or three sticks, ideally - shtaketiny from the fence with the remnants of the traditional painting. When there is a need to help, for some reason, it turns out that people are not happy when his broken arm, leg trying to straighten out and tied to a stick.
And all because of a fracture should be locked in a position that is most comfortable for the victim. Of course this is usually bent. Like this. Did you know that? Hope so. And because of the below listed the top ten most common misconceptions stereotypes first aid laugh as over long-known thing. Or think about it. Or remember. And best of all - you will find time and pass good courses in first aid. Suddenly, God forbid, come in handy.
1. perishes himself, and save your comrade
This stereotype is tightly hammered into the heads of the older generation of films, books and simply the ideology of Soviet times, chant the desperate heroism and self-sacrifice. No doubt - the quality of these important, valuable and sometimes even necessary. But in real life, on the street, in the city or in the countryside following the memorized rules could cost lives as a hero and saves.
A simple example - the car ran into a power line pole. The driver sits inside the unconscious, talk to him is not terrible. And suddenly he rushes to the rescue of the hero. Reaches the car without seeing the wires, and again - one suffered more. Next - even a hero, then - a couple of ... and here we have a car with a driver alive, surrounded by a bunch of heroic bodies have not had time to call rescuers and "fast". Clearly, the hype in the press, the rally with placards, "How long ?!" someone condemned, but in general the state of emergency imposed on the country. In short - a mess, and why? Because our heroes did not know one simple rule - first determine what threatens you, and only then - that threatens the victim, because if you something happens to help you no longer can. Assess the situation, call 01 and possibly refrain from extreme heroism. How would this may sound cynical, one corpse is always better than two.
2. Get any means
Continuing the theme of roads and road accidents. You would not believe how common in our country, the following scenario: an ambulance and rescuers arrive to the scene of the accident and the victims have already recovered from the crumpled cars stacked in the shade and made to drink some water. In this voluntary rescuers were pulling people out of cars for arms and legs, and in addition to have a couple of injury caught up completely rather offensive, like a broken spinal deformity. So a man sat in the car waiting for help, experts carefully this machine would be dismantled, put him on a stretcher and transferred to doctors. Six months in the hospital - and again on their feet. And now there is. Now - permanent disability. And it does not specifically. All out of a desire to help.
So - do not. It is not necessary to depict rescuers. Actions accident witnesses are as follows: call for help, disconnect the battery, emergency vehicle to sparks from accidentally spilled gasoline is not broke, to fence the place of accident, the victim stopped the bleeding (if any) and before the arrival of doctors just to a man ... talk. Yes, psychological support, distraction, encouraging, joking after all. The wounded must feel that they care about it. But to drag a person's hands and feet of the car can be in only one case - when the possibility of transporting the consequences will be less than its absence. For example - when the car caught fire.
3. Tab to the collar
Remember this bike? The army first-aid kit has a pin, and it is necessary to pin the language of the unconscious man to his own collar - the fact that it (the language) is not sunk and blocked airways. And it happened, so it was done. Good pictures - here and so wake up from fainting, but with tongue out? Yes, in an unconscious state in a human language always sinks. Yes, it must be borne in mind and to deal with it. But not in the same barbaric methods! Have you ever, by the way, trying to get a person out of his mouth language? No? Try. Awaits discovery - it turns out, is soft, slippery and does not want to remain in the extended position. Yes, and it's unhygienic. To liberate the airways from sunken language, a person simply turn to one side. All - the airway open. So, by the way, it is recommended to do with all the familiar and unfamiliar drunks sleeping on the street. Put it to one side - and nothing, pr. But if he had fallen asleep lying on his back, then his life is threatened just two dangers: to choke off the tongue and choke on vomit. And if one side for some reason can not (for example - suspected spinal injury in which all once again to move the person is dangerous) just zaprokinte his head back. It's enough.
4. Harness around the neck
By the way, this is quite possible. Tourniquet applied to the neck, but not just so, and by hand. But it's not about that. The wiring relationship tremulous and tender our people. He is in every medicine cabinet, and therefore in any severe bleeding citizens rush zhgutovat. Some while even remember that summer tourniquet can be applied for two hours, and in the winter one. And know that the venous blood color darker than the arterial. That's just often it turns out that is not the most life-threatening deep cut somehow harness, so much so that on arrival at the hospital it turns out - bloodless limb can not be saved.
Remember - a tourniquet is used only for stopping arterial bleeding. How to distinguish it? Well, certainly not by the color of blood. Firstly, shades of red, and so it is not always a distinction, and here a stressful situation. It is easy to make a mistake. However, it is arterial bleeding, you will learn easily. If we translate our typical pressure of 120 to 80 in the atmosphere, you get somewhere 1, 4. In other words, almost one and a half. Now imagine that of a narrow tube through a small hole under atmospheric pressure enters the half-yes. Figured a fountain will be? That's it. It is for the pressure and the height of the fountain of blood unmistakably recognized arterial bleeding. And here we must not tarry, the life goes out of a person with the second. So do not look for harness or rope, removed his belt. Immediately quickly clamped a finger. Where? In places where the artery closest to the surface of the body and less covered - the groin, armpit. Your task - to press the artery, wait stop the bleeding, and then priladit to place a tourniquet. And as soon as possible to the hospital. Incidentally, the wiring is applied to clothing, so it is visible. A note with the time of tourniquet better ... write a marker on the forehead of the victim. So more likely that the information will not be lost, and the poor guy probably forgive you this body art.
But venous bleeding - even very plentiful - it is better to stop a tight pressure bandage. It does not matter if it is completely saturated with blood - put on top of another layer. This is among other things allows the doctor in a bandage thickness assess the severity of blood loss.
5. Burn smazhem oil
We imagine, 80% consists of water, which, among other properties, has also a heat capacity. What is we burn, if we consider the data? Some heat gets on the skin and the surface goes deeper into the tissues of the body, which readily accumulate inherited them Joules. What tells us the banal logic? Joules to remove the back and stop the overheating, it is necessary to burn the place cool. After all, right? And just like. Pour cold water on the burn and wait. But here we are waiting for, as it turns out, is not enough. As a rule - to mitigate or disappearance of pain, that is, less than a minute. During this time, only a fraction of joules comes out, the rest sitting, hiding and waiting for developments.
How can we develop the event? Thick smear place burn panthenol, cream, yogurt or - Babkin recipe - butter with salt. What's happening? Over where the tissue is still walking the notorious Joules, creates a cushion of pressurized substances, closing them out to freedom. As a result - only compounded by the burn. But if you would have the patience to stand still under water 10-15 minutes would be quite another matter. And panthenol, and other funds began to work with damaged skin, from under which all of the heat is already displayed.
6. Rub his ears
Russia - a cold place, so that one of the threats for the Russian people - frostbite. Faced with almost all of them - ears and nose are white, lose sensitivity, but when rubbed by hand or snow, quickly turn red, and then the pain comes. Why so painful that? Yes, because our body (sorry for simplification) - a system of tubes and provodochki where the first - the blood vessels, and the second - the nerve endings. Freeze in the cold duct, the blood does not circulate on them (hence the white color), provodochki dubeyut, and it all becomes brittle.
And we begin to pound. And Cruz Loma melenkie tube-provodochki, causing serious damage to the body. After all, even a bottle of beer, frozen in the freezer, the sudden transfer to heat may explode. And delicate flasks ... So - do not rub. It is necessary to slowly warm. Cool or lukewarm water. Then the effects of frostbite will not be so bad, and the pain of the sensitivity of the return is not as strong.
7. Shivering - Warming
Remember, as it happened at high temperature - very hot, and shivering. The whole body is trembling, I want to lie curled up under a warm blanket, warm and warm up ... And it went, and even then warmed, and did not know what to warm up in this situation is not just bad, and deadly. It is very simple - chills at a high (more than 38) temperature indicates only one. That the temperature continues to rise and the body overheats. He needed cooling, but instead we wrap up warmly, covered with a blanket, surrounded by cushioning heaters. As a result - a personal thermos, in which the body heats up more and more.
In the saddest cases, the temperature flies for a mark of 41, and after that were irreversible, leading to death. It is not often, but it happens. So remember - at high temperature and chills do not need to be wrapped up. It should be cool. Cool bath, a light blanket, wet rubdown ... anything, just to give the body a chance to dump excess heat. Be sure - because the high temperature will be transferred and will be much easier.
8. Bank with potassium permanganate
So. Do your parents know that manganese crystals are completely dissolved in water at a temperature of only 70 degrees? Did they know that bodyazhit such a solution is not just pointless (not necessarily drinking antiseptics to immediately give them back), but also dangerous, as the undissolved crystal of potassium permanganate can make some in the gastric mucosa bunch of troubles? Do not waste time and chemicals - to clean the stomach enough to drink 3-5 glasses of plain warm water and induce vomiting.
9. Knock - clap
The man choked, poor fellow, and coughs so that grieves. What do the others? Of course, it helps him - knocking on the back. But why do they do it? From a scientific point of view, such attacks even more irritating to a place where there is a foreign body in choking enhanced cough reflex and caught the wrong way a piece of flies itself. Now imagine a drainpipe. Throw to the cat (it is clear that supposedly we're not sadists any) and start pounding the stick pipe (virtually). What do you think, what is the likelihood that the cat will jump from the top of the pipe? So it is with our piece - in ninety-nine cases, a person cleared his throat. But in one piece will fall deeper into the respiratory system with all its consequences - the need for physician intervention to death from respiratory failure.
So - do not have to knock. Even if you are asked. Much easier and safer to calm the man and ask him to do a few slow, very slow breaths and sharp exhalations. As you exhale, bend forward slightly better - to our downspout moved from a vertical position to a horizontal. Three or four such breaths - and coughing increase. Piece fly by itself, simply and safely.
10. Pry his teeth
This is probably the most common and the most legendary misleading, in that quite seriously believe millions of Russians. This unshakable confidence in the fact that a person who has had an attack of epilepsy, it is necessary to unclench his teeth and insert between them anything. Beauty! And inserted because - try, at least. A epileptics then, recovering himself, was surprised to realize that their mouth is clogged by plastic Gnawed pens (at best) or fragments of their own teeth (at worst). So: do not! Do not shoved the man in the mouth horrible, and so it is unsweetened. You make it worse. After all, the well-wishers justify such action? The fact that a person in a fit may bite his tongue. Three times, "ha!" So you know - during an attack all human muscles are in good shape. Including language, which among other things is also a muscle. He was tense and therefore do not fall out of his mouth and will not fall between the teeth. High - will be will bite the tip. Blood in this little, but mingled with foamed saliva, it creates the appearance of unprecedented destruction - and fueled by myths about languages bitten off.
In general, you do not meddle with their knives, forks, spoons. If you really want to help, kneel at the head of the epileptic and try to hold her head to avoid hitting the ground. Such attacks are much more dangerous hypothetical bitten tongue. And when the attack will take an active phase - convulsions run out - gently rotate the human side as he came the second phase - a dream. It can not last, but still in such a state because the muscles are relaxed and there is a possibility of suffocation from the tongue.
Such are the harsh realities of our insecure life. It is advisable very well learn them yourself, it is no wonder that the chief medical law is: "Do no harm!" And the laws would be nice to observe - will be healthier.